From The Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies
A generic name given to anti-essentialist theories that stress the culturally and historically specific creation of meaningful categories and phenomena.
From The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science
In traditional philosophy, the commodity that goes by the name of knowledge, whether based on information conveyed by the senses or on insights of intuitive reason, is always expected to represent an external reality in some way analogous to the way pictures represent what they are supposed to depict.
- Epistemology: Topic Page
[Gr.,=knowledge or science], the branch of philosophy that is directed toward theories of the sources, nature, and limits of knowledge.
- Experiential Learning
From Business: The Ultimate Resource
A model that views learning as a cyclical process in four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation.
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
Philosophical and literary movement in which man and his capabilities are the central concern.
From The Edinburgh International Encyclopaedia of Psychoanalysis
The cardinal principle of phenomenology, the concept of intentionality originated with the Scholastics in the medieval period and was resurrected by Brentano in the nineteenth century.
- Interactionist perspective
From The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology
As a major theoretical perspective within sociology, the interactionist perspective focuses on the concrete details of what goes on among individuals in everyday life, as distinct from the larger focus on social systems found in the conflict and functionalist perspectives.
From Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Political Thought
The requirement in an agreement that each party do something to or for the other. Absence of mutuality makes an agreement unenforceable at law, so that a contract ‘without consideration’ is nugatory.
- Philanthropy: Topic Page
The spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity.
- Situated cognition
From Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science
heories of situated cognition maintain that intelligent human action has evolved within and is shaped by and adapted to the specific forms of activity within which it occurs, and that cognition must therefore be understood and studied as an aspect of embodied practical activity.
- Jane Addams (1860 - 1935): Topic Page
U.S. social reformer, feminist, and pacifist, who founded Hull House, a social settlement in Chicago: Nobel peace prize 1931.
- Jerome Bruner (1915 - ): Topic Page
Jerome Bruner's contributions can be anchored in three concepts which are concerned with how we learn to mean and to understand others’ meanings. These are intentionality, thinking and culture.
- John Dewey (1859-1952): Topic Page
Dewey’s belief that the method of enquiry, the scientific method, should be applied to practical problems lent philosophical support to the rise and the vogue of the social sciences.
- George Kelly (1905 - 1967)
From Biographical Dictionary of Psychology
George Kelly grew up in Kansas and obtained his undergraduate education at Friends University and at Park College, Missouri. In the 1930s, in Kansas, he founded and directed a unique traveling psychological clinic for teachers, parents and children.
- Maria Montessori (1870-1952): Topic Page
Single-handedly revolutionized teaching methods for preschool and infant children.
- Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980): Topic Page
Swiss psychologist, noted for his work on the development of the cognitive functions in children.
- Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934): Topic Page
Lev Semeonovich Vygotsky grew up in Gomel, near Belarus's borders with Russia and with the Ukraine. His early life and education were those of a well-to-do Jewish family of the time.