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This is the "Geography" page of the "History Credo Reference" guide.
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Last Updated: Nov 14, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Major Cities

  • Bogotá: Topic Page
    The capital of Colombia, on a central plateau of the E Andes: originally the centre of Chibcha civilization; founded as a city in 1538 by the Spaniards. Population: 6 004 782 (1997 est.). MORE
  • Buenos Aires: Topic Page
    The capital of Argentina, a major port and industrial city on the Río de la Plata estuary: became capital in 1880; university (1821). Population: 2 988 006 (1995 est.). MORE
  • Caracas: Topic Page
    The capital of Venezuela, in the north: founded in 1567; major industrial and commercial centre, notably for oil companies. MORE
  • Cuzco: Topic Page
    Capital of Cuzco department, south-central Peru, 560 km/350 mi southeast of Lima. MORE
  • Havana: Topic Page
    The capital of Cuba, a port in the northwest on the Gulf of Mexico: the largest city in the Caribbean; founded in 1514 as San Cristóbal de la Habana by Diego Velásquez. Population: 2 241 000 (1995 est.). MORE
  • Mexico City: Topic Page
    Capital, industrial, and cultural centre of Mexico, 2,255 m/7,400 ft above sea level on the southern edge of the central plateau; population (2000 est) 8,605,200 (city), 18,327,000 (urban area; the largest urban agglomeration in the world). MORE
  • Rio de Janeiro: Topic Page
    Port and resort in southeast Brazil; capital of Rio de Janeiro federal unit (state), and former national capital (1763-1960); population (2000 est) 5,850,500; metropolitan area (2000 est) 10,389,400. MORE
  • São Paulo: Topic Page
    from The Columbia Encyclopedia
    (souN pou' lʊ), state (1996 pop. 34,055,715), 95,713 sq mi (247,897 sq km), SE Brazil. It is Brazil's most populous and economically important state. The capital is the city of São Paulo, (1996 pop. 9,816,776), on the Tietê River.

Sites and Festivals

  • Carnival
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Carnival has been celebrated throughout Latin America since colonial times. The best-known places for Carnival celebration are Bolivia, the Caribbean, Cuba, and Colombia. Some of these different types of Carnival syncretize different cultural traditions: European, African, and Amerindian. MORE
  • Chichén Itzá
    From Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries
    Chichén Itzá, one of the largest and most important of the Maya ruins, is located on the low, broad plain that forms the northern part of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. MORE
  • Machu Picchu: Topic Page
    Inca site in Peru, about 50 mi (80 km) NW of Cuzco. MORE

Natural Geography

  • Amazon: Topic Page
    River in South America, the second longest in the world, after the Nile; length 6,516 km/4,050 mi. MORE
  • Andes: Topic Page
    Mountain system, more than 5,000 mi (8,000 km) long, W South America. MORE
  • Atacama Desert: Topic Page
    Arid region, c.600 mi (970 km) long, N Chile, extending south from the border of Peru. MORE
  • Caribbean Islands
    from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide
    Situated between 10° and 26°N, and therefore almost entirely within the tropics, all the West Indian islands have a distinctly oceanic variety of tropical climate. Because of the similarity of weather and climate over this whole area, the Caribbean Islands are described together. MORE
  • Caribbean Sea: Topic Page
    An almost landlocked sea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, bounded by the Caribbean islands, Central America, and the N coast of South America. Area: 2 718 200 sq. km (1 049 500 sq. miles). MORE
  • Guiana Highlands: Topic Page
    Mountainous tableland, c.1,200 mi (1,930 km) long and from 200 to 600 mi (322–966 km) wide, N South America, bounded by the Orinoco and Amazon river basins, and by the coastal lowlands of the Guianas. MORE
  • Orinoco River (Venezuela and Colombia) : Topic Page
    River of Venezuela, estimated to be from 1,500 to 1,700 mi (2,410–2,735 km) long.
  • Pampas
    from The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Wide, flat, grassy plains of temperate S South America, c.300,000 sq mi (777,000 sq km), particularly in Argentina and extending into Uruguay.
  • Patagonia: Topic Page
    The southernmost region of South America, in Argentina and Chile extending from the Andes to the Atlantic. Area: about 777 000 sq. km (300 000 sq. miles). MORE
  • West Indies: Topic Page
    An archipelago off Central America, extending over 2400 km (1500 miles) in an arc from the peninsula of Florida to Venezuela, separating the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean: consists of the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas; largest island is Cuba. MORE

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