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This is the "Enlightenment & Revivalism" page of the "History Credo Reference" guide.
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  • Antoine Arnauld (1612 - 1694): Topic Page
    Arnauld, Antoine (b. 1612, d. 1694; French), theologian and philosopher, strongly associated with the controversial Port-Royal school. MORE
  • Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882): Topic Page
    British naturalist who revolutionized the study of biology with his theory of evolution based on natural selection. His most famous works include Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871). MORE
  • Cornelius Jansen (1585 - 1638): Topic Page
    Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. In Augustinus (1640) he defended the teachings of St. Augustine, especially on free will, grace, and predestination. MORE
  • David Hume (1711 - 1776): Topic Page
    When David Home (as his name was spelled then) entered the University of Edinburgh in 1723-25, his family expected him to pursue a career in the law. Hume, however, soon turned his attention to philosophy. MORE
  • Enlightenment: Topic Page
    The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent [...] fostered the belief in natural law and universal order and the confidence in human reason that spread to influence all of 18th-century society. MORE
  • Epistemology: Topic Page
    [Gr.,=knowledge or science], the branch of philosophy that is directed toward theories of the sources, nature, and limits of knowledge. MORE
  • Jansenism
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Christian teaching of Cornelius Jansen, which divided the Roman Catholic Church in France in the mid-17th century. Emphasizing the more predestinatory approach of St Augustine of Hippo's teaching, Jansenism was supported by the philosopher Pascal and Antoine Arnauld. MORE
  • Metaphysics: Topic Page
    Branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of existence. MORE
  • Natural theology: Topic Page
    In Christianity, learning about God from creation, using reason alone. In Greek and Roman philosophy, it refers to discourse on the ‘divine’ nature of things, rather than their accidental or transient nature. MORE
  • Renaissance: Topic Page
    Period in European cultural history that began in Italy around 1400 and lasted there until the end of the 1500s. Elsewhere in Europe it began later, and lasted until the 1600s. MORE


  • Chalres Spurgeon (1834 - 1892)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    English Baptist preacher. He joined the Baptist communion in 1850. In 1852, at age 18, he took charge of a small congregation at Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire, and, at 20, went to London as pastor of the New Park St. Chapel. MORE
  • Charles Finney (1792 - 1875)
    From Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World
    Charles Grandison Finney was the American religious leader most closely associated with the Second Great Awakening, an evangelical revival that swept the United States in the 1820s. MORE
  • George Whitefield (1714 - 1770): Topic Page
    English evangelistic preacher, leader of the Calvinistic Methodist Church. At Oxford, which he entered in 1732, he joined the Methodist group led by John Wesley and Charles Wesley. MORE
  • Great Awakening
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Series of religious revivals that swept over the American colonies about the middle of the 18th cent. It resulted in doctrinal changes and influenced social and political thought. MORE
  • Jonathan Edwards (1703 - 1758): Topic Page
    American theologian and metaphysician, b. East Windsor (then in Windsor), Conn. He was a precocious child, early interested in things scientific, intellectual, and spiritual. MORE
  • Methodism
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    The doctrines, polity, and worship of those Protestant Christian denominations that have developed from the movement started in England by the teaching of John Wesley. MORE
  • Oxford Movement: Topic Page
    Religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England (see England, Church of) by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals. MORE
  • Salvation Army: Topic Page
    Protestant denomination and international nonsectarian Christian organization for evangelical and philanthropic work. MORE
  • Second Great Awakening
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    US religious evangelical revivalist movement, lasting from about 1800 to 1870. The Second Great Awakening permanently changed the face of religion in the USA. MORE

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