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This is the "Renaissance & Reformation" page of the "History Credo Reference" guide.
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  • John Wycliffe (1328 - 1384)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford. MORE
  • Leo X (1475 - 1521)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Pope (1513–21), a Florentine named Giovanni de' Medici; successor of Julius II. He was the son of Lorenzo de' Medici, was made a cardinal in his boyhood, and was head of his family before he was 30. MORE
  • Martin Luther (1483 - 1546): Topic Page
    German leader of the Protestant Reformation, b. Eisleben, Saxony, of a family of small, but free, landholders. MORE
  • John Calvin (1509 - 1564): Topic Page
    French-born ecclesiastical statesman and theologian (1509-64), founder of Calvinism. MORE
  • Indulgences
    From The Macmillan Encyclopedia
    In the Roman Catholic Church, remissions of the temporal penalties incurred for sins already forgiven by God in the sacrament of penance. MORE
  • Ninety-Five Theses
    From Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
    Propositions for debate on the question of indulgences, written by Martin Luther and, according to legend, posted on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Ger., on Oct. 31, 1517. MORE
  • Reformation: Topic Page
    Religious and political movement in 16th-century Europe to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of the Protestant churches. MORE

Counter Reformation

  • Council of Trent (1545 - 1563): Topic Page
    19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation. MORE
  • Counter-Reformation: Topic Page
    16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present none of the tradition breaking that characterized Protestantism. MORE
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491 - 1556): Topic Page
    1491–1556, Spanish churchman, founder of the Jesuits (see Jesus, Society of), b. Loyola Castle near Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, Spain. MORE
  • Jesuits
    From The Macmillan Encyclopedia
    Members of the Society of Jesus, an order founded by St Ignatius Loyola in 1533 to propagate the Roman Catholic faith. The order was organized along military lines; in addition to the traditional vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, Jesuits were sworn to go wherever the pope might send them. MORE
  • Julius II (1443 - 1513): Topic Page
    Original name Guiliano della Rovere. 1443-1513, pope (1503-13). He completed the restoration of the Papal States to the Church, began the building of St Peter's, Rome (1506), and patronized Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante. MORE
  • Saint Theresa or Teresa (Theresa of Ávila) 1515 - 1582
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Spanish Carmelite nun, Doctor of the Church, one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the greatest mystics, and a leading figure in the Counter Reformation.
  • Sistine Chapel: Topic Page
    Private chapel of the popes in Rome, one of the principal glories of the Vatican. Built (1473) under Pope Sixtus IV, it is famous for its decorations. MORE

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