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  • East-West Schism (1054)
    From The Macmillan Encyclopedia
    The breach between the Eastern (Byzantine) and Western (Roman) branches of the Christian Church, which became formal in 1054. MORE
  • Filioque Controversy
    From Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
    An argument concerning the Procession of the Holy Spirit, which long disturbed the Eastern and Western churches and which still forms one of the principal barriers between them.
  • Nicene Creed: Topic Page
    One of the fundamental creeds of Christianity, drawn up by the Council of Nicaea, a meeting of bishops in AD 325. The Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical (worldwide) council. The church leaders met to discuss teachings about Jesus. MORE
  • Orthodox Church
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Federation of national and regional self-governing Christian churches, mainly found in Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The final schism between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church occurred in 1054. MORE
  • Roman Catholicism: Topic Page
    Greek katholikos ‘universal’ [article] One of the main divisions of the Christian religion, separate from the Eastern Orthodox Church. MORE
  • Schism
    From Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Formal split over a doctrinal difference between religious believers, as in the final schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches in 1054; the Great Schism (1378-1417) in the Roman Catholic Church; the separation of the Old Catholics who rejected the doctrine of papal infallibility in 1879; and the schism over the use of the Latin Tridentine mass in 1988. MORE
  • The Great Schism (1378 - 1417)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Or Schism of the West, division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics. MORE


  • Albigensian Crusade (1208 - 1229)
    From The Reader's Companion to Military History
    In 1208 Pope Innocent III issued a call for a “holy war” against the Albigensian heretics (Cathars) in southern France. The Albigensians preached that an inseparable gulf existed between the material world, which was evil, and the spiritual world, which was good. MORE
  • Crusades: Topic Page
    Series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. MORE
  • Holy War
    From The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations
    The notion that war is imbued with religious purpose is a persistent approach to armed conflict in many eras and societies. In such an approach, one’s own cause is seen as perfectly just and oneself as entirely moral, whereas the enemy is perceived, or at least portrayed to the home front, as the personification of evil. MORE
  • Jerusalem: Topic Page
    The capital of Israel, Jerusalem is an administrative, religious, educational, cultural, and market center. MORE
  • Reconquista
    From The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations
    Muslim Moors from North Africa advanced into and conquered Iberia. Their migration threatened southern France as well, until they were defeated and forced south of the Pyrenees by the Franks, 732–737, under Charles Martel (“The Hammer,” c. 688–741). For the next 800 years Christians and Muslims waged war for control of Iberia. MORE
  • Richard I (1157 - 1199): Topic Page
    Nicknamed Coeur de Lion or the Lion-Heart. 1157-99, king of England (1189-99); a leader of the third crusade (joining it in 1191). On his way home, he was captured in Austria (1192) and held to ransom. MORE
  • Saladin (1138 - 1193): Topic Page
    Arabic Salah ad-Din, 1137?–1193, Muslim warrior and Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, the great opponent of the Crusaders, b. Mesopotamia, of Kurdish descent. MORE
  • The Inquisition: Topic Page
    Historical in the RC Church between the 13c and 19c: a papal tribunal responsible for discovering, suppressing and punishing heresy and unbelief, etc. MORE

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