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Germany

  • Germany: Topic Page
    Located in the center of Europe, it borders the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France on the west; Switzerland and Austria on the south; the Czech Republic and Poland on the east; Denmark on the north; and the Baltic Sea on the northeast.
  • Franco-Prussian War: Topic Page
    From 1870-71, a conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German military power and imperialism. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck (the Prussian chancellor) as part of his plan to create a unified German Empire.
  • Frederick William III: Topic Page
    King of Prussia (1797-1840).
  • German Confederation: Topic Page
    The union of German states from 1815-66, provided for at the Congress of Vienna to replace the old Holy Roman Empire, which had been destroyed during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
  • Kulturkampf: Topic Page
    The conflict between the German government under Otto von Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Martin Luther: Topic Page
    Martin Luther, the sixteenth-century leader of the Protestant Reformation, was a German monk who began to preach against the Catholic Church’s doctrines and practices, especially the legitimacy of indulgences, the Mass as a representation of Christ’s sacrifice, and vows of celibacy required for priests. Martin Luther initiated a movement of criticism that extended beyond the scope of his own reform efforts, especially during the Enlightenment.
  • Otto von Bismarck (1815 - 1898): Topic Page
    German statesman, known as the Iron Chancellor. Born of an old Brandenburg Junker family, he studied at Göttingen and Berlin, and after holding minor judicial and administrative offices he was elected (1847) to the Prussian Landtag [parliament].
  • Prussia: Topic Page
    The chief member of the German Empire (1871-1918) and a state of the Weimar Republic (1919-33), Prussia occupied more than half of all Germany and the major part of N Germany.

The Holy Roman Empire

  • Austria: Topic Page
    Republic of Austria, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 8,185,000), 32,374 sq mi (83,849 sq km), central Europe. It is bounded by Slovenia and Italy (S), Switzerland and Liechtenstein (W), Germany and the Czech Republic (N), and Slovakia and Hungary (E). Its capital and by far its largest city is Vienna.
  • Bohemia: Topic Page
    Bohemia, Czech Čechy, historic region (20,368 sq mi/52,753 sq km) and former kingdom, in W and central Czech Republic. Bohemia is bounded by Austria in the southeast, by Germany in the west and northwest, by Poland in the north and northeast, and by Moravia in the east. Its natural boundaries are the Bohemian Forest, the Erzgebirge ("ore mountains") chain, the Sudetes, and the Bohemian-Moravian heights.
  • Holy League: Topic Page
    The name given to a number of European alliances formed during the 15th Century , 16th Century , and 17th Century.
  • Hungary: Topic Page
    Country in central Europe, bounded north by the Slovak Republic, northeast by Ukraine, east by Romania, south by Serbia and Croatia, and west by Austria and Slovenia.
  • Joseph II: Topic Page
    Holy Roman emperor (1765-90), king of Bohemia and Hungary (1780-90), son of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, whom he succeeded. He was the first emperor of the house of Hapsburg-Lorraine (see Hapsburg).
  • Maria Theresa: Topic Page
    Austrian archduchess, queen of Bohemia and Hungary (1740-80), consort of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and dowager empress after the accession (1765) of her son, Joseph II.
  • Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, 1557-1619: Topic Page
    Holy Roman emperor (1612-19), king of Bohemia (1611-17) and of Hungary (1608-18), son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II.
  • Sigismund: Topic Page
    Holy Roman emperor (1433-37), German king (1410-37), king of Hungary (1387-1437) and of Bohemia (1419-37), elector of Brandenburg (1376-1415), son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV.
  • Thirty Years' War: Topic Page
    From 1618-48, a general European war fought mainly in Germany.
  • War of the Austrian Succession: Topic Page
    The war broke out when, on the strength of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as ruler of the Hapsburg lands. The elector of Bavaria, Charles Albert, advanced counterclaims to the succession while Philip V of Spain and Augustus III of Poland and Saxony advanced weak claims of their own. Frederick II of Prussia, on even less tenable grounds claimed part of the province of Silesia.
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