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General Information

  • English civil war: Topic Page
    1642–48, The conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the "parliamentarians".
  • Glorious Revolution: Topic Page
    In English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of James II and the accession of William III and Mary II to the English throne. It is also called the Bloodless Revolution.
  • Hundred Years' War: Topic Page
    1337–1453, conflict between England and France. Causes Its basic cause was a dynastic quarrel that originated when the conquest of England.
  • Magna Carta: Topic Page
    Or Magna Charta [Lat., = great charter], the most famous document of British constitutional history, issued by King John at Runnymede.
  • Reformation: Topic Page
    Religious and political movement in 16th-century Europe to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of the Protestant churches.
  • Renaissance: Topic Page
    Period in European cultural history that began in Italy around 1400 and lasted there until the end of the 1500s. Elsewhere in Europe it began later, and lasted until the 1600s.
  • War of the Roses
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).

Norman Conquest (1066 - 1154)

  • Æthelred, king of England (c. 965 - 1016)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    king of England (978–1016), called Æthelred the Unready. He was the son of Edgar and the half brother of Edward the Martyr, whom he succeeded.
  • Battle of Hastings
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Battle on 14 October 1066 at which William, Duke of Normandy (William (I) the Conqueror) defeated King Harold II of England.

  • Battle of Stamford Bridge
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Battle on 25 September 1066 at Stamford Bridge, a crossing of the Derwent 14 km/9 mi northeast of York, England, at which Harold II defeated and killed Harold Hardraada, King of Norway, and Tostig, the English king's exiled brother.
  • Bayeux Tapestry
    From The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of British Art
    A hanging that presents a continuous narrative of the events leading up to and including the Battle of Hastings in 1066. It is a unique historical document, for while similar hangings are known to have existed, no comparable examples have survived.
  • Canute (c. 995 - 1035): Topic Page
    king of England, Norway, and Denmark. The younger son of Sweyn of Denmark, Canute accompanied his father on the expedition of 1013 that invaded England and forced Æthelred to flee to Normandy.
  • Domesday Book
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Record of a general census of England made (1085–86) by order of William I (William the Conqueror). The survey ascertained the economic resources of most of the country for purposes of more accurate taxation.
  • Godwin (11th Century)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    or Godwine both: gŏd'wĭn, d. 1053, earl of Wessex. He became chief adviser to King Canute, was created (c.1018) an earl, and was given great wealth and lands.
  • Harald (III) Hardrada (or Harald Hardråde) (1015–1066) (1015 - 1066)
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    King of Norway 1045-66, ruling jointly with Magnus I 1045-47. He engaged in an unsuccessful atempt to conquer Denmark 1045-62; and extended Norwegian rule in Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebrides.
  • Norman conquest: Topic Page
    Period in English history following the defeat (1066) of King Harold of England by William, duke of Normandy, who became William I of England.
  • William the Conquerer (1028 - 1087)
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    King of England from 25 December 1066. He was the illegitimate son of Duke Robert the Devil whom he succeeded as Duke of Normandy in 1035.

Tudor Era (1485 - 1603)

Notable People

Middle Ages (1154 - 1485)

  • Black Death: Topic Page
    Great epidemic of plague, mainly the bubonic variant, that ravaged Europe in the mid-14th century. Contemporary estimates that it killed between one-third and half of the population (about 75 million people) are probably accurate.
  • Crusades: Topic Page
    Series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims.
  • Edward I (1239 - 1307): Topic Page
    King of England (1272-1307); son of Henry III. He conquered Wales (1284) but failed to subdue Scotland.
  • Edward II (1284 - 1327): Topic Page
    King of England (1307-27); son of Edward I. He invaded Scotland but was defeated by Robert Bruce at Bannockburn (1314). He was deposed by his wife Isabella and Roger Mortimer; died in prison.
  • Edward, the Black Prince (1330 - 1376): Topic Page
    Eldest son of Edward III of England. He was created duke of Cornwall in 1337, the first duke to be created in England.
  • Simon de Montfort (1208 - 1265): Topic Page
    Leader of the baronial revolt against Henry III of England. He was born in France, the son of Simon de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian Crusade. After his father's death, he received the claim to the earldom of Leicester, inherited from his grandmother.

Civil War & Revolution (1603 - 1660)

  • Battle of Marston Moor
    From Brewer's Britain and Ireland
    (2 July 1644). One of the most decisive engagements in the Civil Wars, in which the Royalists under Prince Rupert and the Earl of Newcastle were defeated by the Parliamentarians under the Earl of Manchester and Lord Fairfax and their Scots allies under Lord Leven.
  • Charles I (1600 - 1649): Topic Page
    Charles was born in Dunfermline, the son of James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) and Anne of Denmark. He suffered from childhood frailty, which meant he had to crawl on his hands and knees until the age of seven, but overcame this to become a skilled tilter and marksman.
  • Gunpowder Plot
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Conspiracy to blow up the English Parliament and King James I on Nov. 5, 1605, the day set for the king to open Parliament.
  • Guy Fawkes (1570 - 1606): Topic Page
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    English conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot to blow up King James I and the members of both Houses of Parliament. Fawkes, a Roman Catholic convert, was arrested in the cellar underneath the House of Lords on 4 November 1605, tortured, and executed.
  • James Stuart (1688 - 1766): Topic Page
    Claimant to the British throne, son of James II and Mary of Modena; called the Old Pretender. His birth, falsely rumored by Whigs at the time to be supposititious (i.e., of other parents than professed), helped to precipitate the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

Restoration & Rebellion (1660 - 1714)

  • Charles II (1630 - 1685)
    From Dictionary of British History
    King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-85). After the execution of his father Charles I in 1649 he was crowned at Scone by the Scots.
  • Jacobites
    From Dictionary of British History
    Supporters of the deposed James II and his heirs, active for almost 60 years after the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89. Their name derives from the Latin Jacobus, James.
  • James II (1633 - 1701)
    King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-88). Second surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria, he was created duke of York in 1634.
  • Oliver Cromwell (1599 - 1658): Topic Page
    English general and statesman. A convinced Puritan, he was an effective leader of the parliamentary army in the Civil War.
  • Queen Anne (1665 - 1714)
    From The Routledge Companion to British History
    Was the second daughter of James D. of York (later James II) and Anne Hyde, who died in 1671.
  • Richard Cromwell (1626 - 1712)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Lord protector of England; third son of Oliver Cromwell. He was the eldest surviving son at the death of his father (Sept. 3, 1658), who had nominated him as his successor.
  • The Protectorate
    From Dictionary of British History
    The period of the Interregnum during which England was governed by a protector. After Oliver Cromwell's expulsion of the Rump, Barebones Parliament failed to fulfil the requirements of the army leaders for an effective legislature.

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