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This is the "UK Geography" page of the "History Credo Reference" guide.
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Last Updated: Nov 14, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

UK Geography Print Page

Geographic Features

  • Channel Islands: Topic Page
    Archipelago (2005 est. pop. 156,000), 75 sq mi (194 sq km), 10 mi (16 km) off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. The main islands are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark.
  • Cotswold Hills: Topic Page
    Range of limestone hills in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire, and Bath and North East Somerset, England, 80 km/50 mi long, between Bath and Chipping Camden.
  • Dartmoor: Topic Page
    Plateau of southwest Devon, England; mostly a national park, 956 sq km/369 sq mi in area. Over half the region is around 300 m/1,000 ft above sea level.
  • Exmoor: Topic Page
    Moorland district in north Devon and west Somerset, southwest England, forming (with the coast from Minehead to Combe Martin) a national park since 1954.
  • Forth
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    River in central Scotland, with its headstreams, Duchray Water and Avondhu, rising on the northeast slopes of Ben Lomond. It flows east approximately 105 km/65 mi to Kincardine where the Firth of Forth begins.
  • Hebrides
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Group of more than 500 islands (fewer than 100 inhabited) off the west coast of mainland Scotland; total area 2,900 sq km/1,120 sq mi.
  • Lake district: Topic Page
    Region in Cumbria, northwest England. It contains the principal English lakes, separated by wild uplands rising to many peaks.
  • Lough Neagh
    From Brewer's Britain and Ireland
    The largest lake in Ireland, and, at 396 sq km (153 sq miles), bigger by a factor in excess of five than anything Britain has to offer. It is surrounded by five of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
  • Mersey: Topic Page
    River in northwest England; length 112 km/70 mi. Formed by the confluence of the Goyt and Tame rivers at Stockport, it flows west through the south of Manchester, is joined by the Irwell at Flixton and by the Weaver at Runcorn, and enters the Irish Sea at Liverpool Bay.
  • New Forest: Topic Page
    A region of woodland and heath in S England, in SW Hampshire: a hunting ground of the West Saxon kings; tourist area, noted for its ponies.
  • North Sea: Topic Page
    Sea to the east of Britain and bounded by the coasts of Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and Norway; part of the Atlantic.
  • Orkney Islands: Topic Page
    A group of over 70 islands off the N coast of Scotland, separated from the mainland by the Pentland Firth: constitutes an island authority of Scotland.
  • Peak district: Topic Page
    Elevated plateau of the south Pennines in northwest Derbyshire, central England; area 1,438 sq km/555 sq mi. It is a tourist region and part of it forms a national park.
  • Severn: Topic Page
    River in Britain, which rises on the slopes of Plynlimon, in Ceredigion, west Wales, and flows east and then south, finally forming a long estuary leading into the Bristol Channel; length 336 km/208 mi.
  • Shetland Islands: Topic Page
    Islands and unitary authority off the north coast of Scotland, 80 km/50 mi northeast of the Orkney Islands, an important centre of the North Sea oil industry, and the most northerly part of the UK.
  • Thames River (England) : Topic Page
    River in south England, flowing through London; length 338 km/210 mi. The longest river in England, it rises in the Cotswold Hills above Cirencester and is tidal as far as Teddington.
  • Western Isles: Topic Page
    Island administrative unitary authority area in Scotland, also known as the Outer Hebrides, including the major islands of Lewis-with-Harris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, and Barra.

Popular Places

  • Avebury: Topic Page
    Europe's largest stone circle (diameter 412 m/1,350 ft), in Wiltshire, England.
  • British Museum: Topic Page
    The national repository in London for treasures in science and art. Located in the Bloomsbury section of the city, it has departments of antiquities, prints and drawings, coins and medals, and ethnography.
  • Channel tunnel: Topic Page
    A rail tunnel beneath the English Channel, which opened in 1994, linking Cheriton near Folkstone in England, with Sangatte near Calais in France.
  • Fountains Abbey: Topic Page
    Cistercian abbey in North Yorkshire, England, situated 13 km/8 mi north of Harrogate. Celebrated as the greatest monument to English monasticism and its architecture, it was founded about 1132, and closed in 1539 at the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
  • Hadrian's Wall: Topic Page
    Line of fortifications built by the Roman emperor Hadrian across northern Britain from the Cumbrian coast on the west to the North Sea on the east.
  • Hyde Park: Topic Page
    One of the largest open spaces in London, England, occupying over 138 ha/340 acres in Westminster, and adjoining Gardens to the west. It includes the Serpentine, a boating lake; and Rotten Row, a riding track.
  • Kelmscott Press: Topic Page
    Printing establishment in London. There William Morris led the 19th-century revival of the art and craft of making books (see arts and crafts). The first book made by the press was The Story of the Glittering Plain (1891), by William Morris.
  • Millennium Dome: Topic Page
    Purpose-built structure in London, England, designed as the centrepiece for UK celebrations of the year 2000. Located on a 73-ha/181-acre site in the borough of Greenwich, the Dome is 320 m/1,050 ft in diameter, 1 km/0.6 mi in circumference, 50 m/164 ft in height, and covers an area of 80,425 sq m/865,687 sq ft.
  • Newgrange
    From Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase and Fable
    A megalithic passage tomb dating from about 3200 bc. It is situated in the Boyne Valley, near Slane in Co. Meath. The grave-mound, which is kidney-shaped, is about 11 m (36 ft) high and 90 m (300 ft) in diameter, and has been reconstructed with materials found on the site after a major excavation that began in 1962.
  • Stonehenge: Topic Page
    Megalithic monument on Salisbury Plain, 3 km/1.9 mi west of Amesbury in Wiltshire, England.
  • Tate: Topic Page
    National art gallery group in the UK, with museums in London, Liverpool, and St Ives.
  • Torquay: Topic Page
    Resort in southern England, 41 km/25 mi south of Exeter; from April 1998, administrative headquarters of Torbay unitary authority; population (2001) 62,950. It is a sailing centre and has an annual regatta in August. Tourism is very important.
  • Trafalgar Square: Topic Page
    Square in central London, England. On the north side of the square is the National Gallery and to the south is Whitehall. It was laid out from the designs of Charles Barry 1829-67 to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar, the naval victory of 1805.

Notable Castles & Palaces

  • Balmoral Castle
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Residence of the British royal family in Scotland on the River Dee, 10 km/6 mi northeast of Braemar, Aberdeenshire. It was purchased for Queen Victoria by her husband, Prince Albert, in 1852.
  • Buckingham Palace
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    London home of the British sovereign, it stands at the west end of St James's Park.
  • Hampton Court Palace: Topic Page
    Former royal residence near Richmond, England, 24 km/15 mi west of central London.
  • Tower of London: Topic Page
    A palace-fortress started by William I as a wooden fortification in 1067 and replaced by him with one in stone (c.1077–97).

  • Windsor Castle: Topic Page
    British royal residence in Windsor, founded by William the Conqueror on the site of an earlier fortress.

Notable Cathedrals

  • Canterbury Cathedral: Topic Page
    Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, England. The finest work of four centuries of medieval English architecture, from Norman to Perpendicular, is represented in the building.
  • Hereford Cathedral: Topic Page
    Cathedral in the city of Hereford, Herefordshire, England. Founded not later than 680 by its first bishop, Putta, it was destroyed in 1055 by the Welsh, and rebuilt late in the 11th century.
  • Salisbury Cathedral: Topic Page
    Cathedral in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. With the exception of its crowning tower and spire, it is a building of uniform Early English design, built to one plan between 1220 and 1258 (unlike any other English cathedral except Exeter).
  • Westminster Abbey: Topic Page
    A Gothic church in London: site of a Benedictine monastery (1050-65); scene of the coronations of almost all English monarchs since William I.
  • York Minster: Topic Page
    Cathedral in York, England. It is the cathedral and metropolitan church of St Peter, and one of the most famous of Europe's Gothic buildings.

Notable Cities & Towns

  • Antrim: Topic Page
    Historic county of Northern Ireland, occupying the northeastern corner of Northern Ireland, with a coastal eastern boundary; area 2,830 sq km/1,092 sq mi.
  • Armagh: Topic Page
    Historic county of Northern Ireland, bordering Lough Neagh to the north and the Republic of Ireland to the south; area 1,250 sq km/483 sq mi.
  • Bath: Topic Page
    Historic city and administrative headquarters of Bath and North East Somerset unitary authority, southwest England, 171 km/106 mi west of London; population (2001) 90,200.
  • Belfast: Topic Page
    Capital city and industrial port of Northern Ireland , situated in County Antrim.
  • Birmingham: Topic Page
    Industrial city and administrative headquarters of West Midlands metropolitan county, central England, second-largest city in the UK, 177 km/110 mi northwest of London; population (2001) 970,900.
  • Brighton: Topic Page
    Seaside resort in Brighton and Hove unitary authority, on the south coast of England; population (2001) 134,300. The city was part of the county of East Sussex until 1997. It is an education and service centre with two universities, language schools, and tourist and conference business facilities.
  • Cambridge: Topic Page
    City and administrative headquarters of Cambridgeshire, eastern England, on the River Cam, 80 km/50 mi north of London; population (2001) 117,700. It is the seat of Cambridge University (founded in the 13th century).
  • Cardiff: Topic Page
    Seaport, capital of Wales (from 1955), and administrative centre of Cardiff unitary authority.
  • County Down
    From Brewer's Britain and Ireland
    A county in southeastern Northern Ireland, in the traditional province of Ulster. It is bordered on the west by Armagh, on the north by Antrim, on the east by the North Channel and the Irish Sea, and to the south by Carlingford Lough.
  • Dover
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Market town and seaport in Kent, southeast England, on the coast of the English Channel; population (2001) 34,100. It is Britain's nearest point to mainland Europe, 34 km/21 mi from Calais, France. Dover is the world's busiest passenger port and England's principal cross-channel port.
  • Edinburgh: Topic Page
    Capital and administrative centre of Scotland and Edinburgh City unitary authority, near the southern shores of the Firth of Forth.
  • Glasgow: Topic Page
    City and administrative headquarters of Glasgow City unitary authority, situated on the river Clyde in southwest Scotland, 67 km/42 mi west of Edinburgh; population (2001) 577,900.
  • Gretna Green
    From Brewer's Britain and Ireland
    A Scottish village 14 km (8.5 miles) northwest of Carlisle, situated at the most southerly point of the border with England, formerly in Dumfriesshire and now in Dumfries and Galloway. It encompasses the villages of Gretna Green and Springfield. The former was for long associated with illicit marriages.
  • Leeds: Topic Page
    Industrial city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England, 40 km/25 mi southwest of York, on the River Aire; population (2001) 443,250; metropolitan area 715,400. Industries include engineering, printing, chemicals, glass, woollens, clothing, plastics, paper, metal goods, and leather goods.
  • Liverpool: Topic Page
    City, seaport, and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, northwest England; population (2001) 469,000. Liverpool is the UK's chief Atlantic port with miles of specialized, mechanized quays on the River Mersey, and 2,100 ha/5,187 acres of dockland.
  • London: Topic Page
    Capital of England and the United Kingdom, on the River Thames. Since 1965 its metropolitan area has been known as Greater London.

  • Manchester: Topic Page
    Metropolitan district of Greater Manchester, and city in northwest England, on the River Irwell, 50 km/31 mi east of Liverpool; population (2001) 394,300.
  • Nottingham: Topic Page
    City and administrative centre of Nottingham City unitary authority in central England, on the River Trent, 38 km/24 mi north of Leicester; population (2001) 249,600. The city's prosperity was based on the expansion of the lace and hosiery industries in the 18th century.
  • Oxford: Topic Page
    University city and administrative centre of Oxfordshire in south central England, at the confluence of the rivers Thames (called the Isis around Oxford) and Cherwell, 84 km/52 mi northwest of London; population (2001) 134,250.

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