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- Attilla the Hun: Topic Page
king of the Huns (445-53). The fear Attila inspired is clear from many accounts of his savagery, but, though undoubtedly harsh, he was a just ruler to his own people.
- Byzantine Empire: Topic Page
The Eastern Roman Empire 395–1453, with its capital at Constantinople (formerly Byzantium, modern Istanbul). It was the direct continuation of the Roman Empire in the East, and inherited many of its traditions and institutions.
- Genghis Khan: Topic Page
Mongol conqueror, ruler of all Mongol peoples from 1206. He conquered the empires of northern China 1211–15 and Khwarazm 1219–21, and invaded northern India in 1221, while his lieutenants advanced as far as the Crimea. When he died, his empire ranged from the Yellow Sea to the Black Sea; it continued to expand after his death to extend from Hungary to Korea. Genghis Khan controlled probably a larger area than any other individual in history. He was not only a great military leader, but the creator of a stable political system.
- Indochina: Topic Page
A former federation of states in SE Asia.
- Justinian I: Topic Page
Byzantine emperor (527-65). Justinian's greatest accomplishment was the codification of Roman law, commonly called the Corpus Juris Civilis. It gave unity to the centralized state and greatly influenced all subsequent legal history.
- Khmer Empire: Topic Page
Ancient kingdom of SE Asia established in the 6th cent. by the Cambodians, or Khmers.
- Mongol: Topic Page
Mongols live in Mongolia, Russia, Inner Mongolia (China), Tibet, and Nepal. In the early 13th century, united under Genghis Khan, the Mongols from 1206 to 1226 conquered central Asia, attacked Eastern Europe and established the Mongolian Empire, a rather loosely constructed federation of tribal groups.
- Ottoman Empire: Topic Page
Vast state founded in the late 13th cent. by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918.
- Persia: Topic Page
The country which is now present-day Iran.
- Saladin (1138 - 1193)
Arabic Salah ad-Din, 1137?–1193, Muslim warrior and Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, the great opponent of the Crusaders, b. Mesopotamia, of Kurdish descent.
- Sassanid: Topic Page
The last dynasty of native rulers to reign in Persia before the Arab conquest.
- Bhagavad Gita: Topic Page
Sanskrit poem incorporated into the Mahabharata, one of the greatest religious classics of Hinduism.
- Buddha: Topic Page
[Skt.,=the enlightened One], usual title given to the founder of Buddhism. He is also called the Tathagata [he who has come thus], Bhagavat [the Lord], and Sugata [well-gone]. He probably lived from 563 to 483 B.C.
- Confucianism: Topic Page
Moral and religious system of China. Its origins go back to the Analects, the sayings attributed to Confucius, and to ancient commentaries. In its early form (before the 3d cent. B.C.) Confucianism was primarily a system of ethical precepts for the proper management of society.
- Hinduism: Topic Page
The Western term for a religious tradition developed during the first millennium and intertwined with the history and social system of India.
- Islam: Topic Page
Islam, one of the world’s great monotheistic religions, was founded (or restored) by the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 CE), who lived in Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula.
- Mahabharata: Topic Page
Classical Sanskrit epic of India, probably composed between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200.
- Qur'an: Topic Page
The Qur'an is the Holy Book of Islam. Muslims treasure the text in its original Arabic as the literal word of God, the last of God's books revealed to humanity, transmitted by the Prophet Muhammad.
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
Ancient native religion of Japan still practiced in a form modified by the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism.
- Taoism: Topic Page
The philosophical system stems largely from the Tao-te-ching, a text traditionally ascribed to Lao Tzu but probably written in the mid-3d cent. B.C.
- Veda: Topic Page
Oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the most ancient religious texts in an Indo-European language.
- Vedic Religion
From Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
Ancient religion of India that was contemporary with the composition of the Vedas and was the precursor of Hinduism.
- Yin and Yang: Topic Page
The Chinese concept that everything is explicable in terms of two complementary but opposing principles.
Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy
Covers the main traditions within Asian thought: Persian; Indian; Buddhist; Chinese; Japanese; and Islamic philosophy. Each section provides comprehensive coverage of the origins of the tradition, its approaches to, for example, logic and languages, and to questions of morals and society. Also contains useful histories of the lives of the key influential thinkers, as well as a thorough analysis of the current trends.
Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend
Provides accessible, informative and authoritative entries to answer any major question about Hinduism, its mythology, practices, customs and laws.