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Golden Age Latin

  • Golden Age Latin
    From The Macmillan Encyclopedia
    The period (70 BCE-18 CE) during which some of the highest achievements of Latin literature were produced. The first part of the period (70-43 BCE) was dominated by Cicero. The major writers of the subsequent Augustan age (43 BCE-18 CE) include Virgil, Horace, Livy, and Ovid. MORE
  • Augustus, Emperor of Rome (63 BCE-14 CE): Topic Page
    First Roman emperor, a grandson of the sister of Julius Caesar. Named at first Caius Octavius, he became on adoption by the Julian gens (44 BCE) Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian); Augustus was a title of honor granted (27 BCE) by the senate. MORE
  • Cicero (106-43 BCE)
    From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
    Marcus Tullius Cicero was one of the most well known of the Roman Stoic philosophers. He lived during the time of internal discord that destroyed the Roman Republic. Cicero translated his uncertainty about the state and corporeal matters into uncertainty about the nature and end of life. MORE
  • Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca. 84–ca. 54 BCE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    Catullus, Gaius Valerius was a poet from Verona in Cisalpine Gaul. Catullus turned to the writing of poetry, in a wide variety of styles and metres, and introduced a new perspective into Latin literature which derived partly from the Alexandrian poets, especially Callimachus, to whose work he was introduced by Parthenius, and partly from Greek lyric poets such as Sappho. MORE
  • Horace (65-8 BCE): Topic Page
    Latin name Quintus Horatius Flaccus. Roman poet and satirist: his verse includes the lyrics in the Epodes and the Odes, the Epistles and Satires, and the Ars Poetica. MORE
  • Livy (59 BCE-17 CE): Topic Page
    Titus Livius. Roman historian; of his history of Rome in 142 books, only 35 survive. MORE
  • Lucretius (ca. 99-ca. 55 BCE): Topic Page
    Titus Lucretius Carus, Roman poet and philosopher. Little is known about his life. A chronicle of St. Jerome speaks of the loss of his reason through taking a love potion. It states that in sane intervals he had written books that were later emended by Cicero. The poetry of Lucretius constitutes one great didactic work in six books, De rerum natura [on the nature of things]. MORE
  • Ovid (43 BCE-ca. 17 CE): Topic Page
    Latin name Publius Ovidius Naso. Roman poet. His verse includes poems on love, Ars Amatoria, on myths, Metamorphoses, and on his sufferings in exile, Tristia. MORE
  • Sextus Propertius (ca. 50-ca. 2 BCE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    Propertius was an elegiac poet from Assisi in Umbria. He published four books of poetry, which show development both in theme and range. MORE
  • Vergil (70-19 BCE): Topic Page
    Roman poet, b. Andes dist., near Mantua, in Cisalpine Gaul; the spelling Virgil is not found earlier than the 5th cent. CE. Vergil's father, a farmer, took his son to Cremona for his education. Vergil worked on the Aeneid, a national epic honoring Rome and foretelling prosperity to come. The adventures of Aeneas are unquestionably one of the greatest long poems in world literature. MORE

Silver Age Latin

  • Silver Age, Latin
    from The Macmillan Encyclopedia
    The period (18-ca. 130 CE) succeeding the Golden Age of Latin literature. During this time rhetorical brilliance and ornamentation became prized for its own sake. Major writers include the satirist Juvenal, the epigrammatist Martial, the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, and the philosopher and dramatist Seneca.
  • Juvenal (ca. 55-ca. 130 CE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    (ca. 55-ca. 130 CE) Juvenal, a satirical poet about whose life virtually nothing is known, was from Aquinum in Latium. A tomb inscription at Aquinum, now lost, if indeed his, suggests that he was a Roman knight and imperial servant as well as a local magistrate, and had served in the army as a military tribune. MORE
  • Lucan (39-65 CE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    (39-65 CE) Lucan was an epic poet from Cordoba in Spain. The son of a Roman equestrian, Marcus Annaeus Mela, brother of the younger Seneca, he was named Marcus Annaeus Lucanus. In 40 his father migrated with him to Rome where he studied rhetoric and, under L. Annaeus Cornutus, Stoic philosophy, and proved his proficiency in those subjects. MORE
  • Martial (ca. 40-ca. 104 CE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    (ca. 40-ca. 104 CE) Martial was a Latin poet, the master of the epigram. Marcus Valerius Martialis was born and brought up at Bilbilis in north central Spain and moved in AD 64 to Rome where he may have studied law; he lived briefly under the patronage of other Spaniards, the younger Seneca and Lucan, besides other patrons, Piso, Vivius Crispus and Memmius Regulus. MORE
  • Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE)
    From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
    (23–79 CE) Pliny the Elder, Gaius Plinius Secundus, was a Roman polymath and author of Natural History, which is a diverse collection of anecdotes, history, geography, medical information of varying worth, discussions of astronomy and earth science, and a catalog of Roman knowledge on botany and zoology. MORE
  • Pliny the Younger (61–113 CE)
    From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
    (61–113 CE) Gaius Plinius Luci was nephew and heir of Pliny the Elder. He was, like his uncle, interested in a variety of topics of inquiry, some of them scientific, which are revealed in his Letters. Pliny was a consul, senator, and lawyer. MORE
  • Quintilian (ca. 35-ca. 90 CE)
    From Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia
    (ca. 35-ca. 90 CE) Pleader in Roman courts and first public professor of Latin rhetoric in Rome, whose Institutio oratoria, written in retirement, is singular among ancient works of educational theory in its consideration of practical pedagogy. MORE
  • Seneca the Younger (5–65 CE)
    From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
    (5–65 CE) Seneca was an extremely influential statesman and Stoic philosopher of the mid-first century CE. He was primarily a moralist, but he also speculated on nature in his Natural Questions, and he explored the human psyche in the Moral Letters. MORE
  • Suetonius (ca. 70–ca. 130 CE)
    From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
    Tranquillus, Gaius (ca. 70–ca. 130 CE), was a writer of biographies in Latin. He was the son of Suetonius Laetus, a Roman knight who had served as a tribune in the Thirteenth Legion at the battle of Cremona in 69. He came from Hippo Regius in Numidia or possibly from Pisaurum in Umbria. MORE
  • Tacitus (56–117 CE)
    From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
    (56–117 CE) Cornelius Tacitus was a historian, biographer, and ethnographer. He was a senator during the Flavian and Antonine dynasties of the Roman Principate. His works included the Annals, Histories, Agricola, and Germania. Tacitus was one of the most sophisticated Roman authors, a polymath of note, who, as an ethnologist, penned an enduring portrait of the peoples of Germany. MORE

Ancient Greek Literature

Greek literature, ancient from The Columbia Encyclopedia

The writings of the ancient Greeks. The Greek Isles are recognized as the birthplace of Western intellectual life. The earliest extant European literary works are the Iliad and the Odyssey, both written in ancient Greek probably before 700 BCE, and attributed to Homer. Among other early epic poems, most of which have perished, those of Hesiod, the first didactic poet, remain.  MORE


    Greek Classical and Pre-Classical Antiquity

    Hellenistic Age

    • Apollonius of Rhodes
      From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide
      (ca. 3rd cent. BCE) Greek poet. He was the author of the epic Argonautica, which tells the story of Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. A pupil of Callimachus, he was for a time head of the library at Alexandria. MORE
    • Callimachus
      From Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia
      (ca. 280–45 BCE) Hellenistic Greek poet and critic. MORE
    • Theocritus
      From Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, Routledge
      (ca. 3rd cent. BCE) Theocritus's poems (written for the most part in the poet's native western, or Doric, form of Greek) came to be known as ‘idylls’. They cover various styles and genres, the largest single group comprising the ‘bucolic’ idylls, which (through Virgil) originated the European pastoral tradition. MORE

    Hellenistic and Roman Period

    • Appian
      From The Columbia Encyclopedia
      (ca. 100 CE) Roman historian. He was a Greek, born in Alexandria. He held various offices in Alexandria, was an advocate in Rome, and then imperial procurator in Egypt. His history of the Roman conquests, from the founding of Rome to the reign of Trajan, is more a collection of monographs on specific events than a continuous history. MORE
    • Archimedes (287-212 BCE): Topic Page
      Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor. He is famous for his work in geometry (on the circle, sphere, cylinder, and parabola), physics, mechanics, and hydrostatics. MORE
    • Arrian
      From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
      (89–180 CE) Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, Arrian, is important to the history of science as a compiler and commentator on the works of others. Arrian wrote the Anabasis, one of the most important sources for the study of the reign of Alexander the Great, in which Alexander’s scientific interests are discussed at length. MORE
    • Diodorus Siculus
      From Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge
      (ca. 1st cent. BCE) A native of Sicily, Diodorus was an assiduous writer and produced a monumental history of the world, Bibliotheke Historica, the first book of which includes information about Egypt which Diodorus seems to have visited, if only briefly. MORE
    • Diogenes Laertius
      From Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy
      (ca. 200 CE) Author of the only preserved example of an ancient “History of Philosophy.” From the Renaissance until ca. 1800, Diogenes Laertius was the main model for historiography of philosophy. MORE
    • Dionysius of Halicarnassus
      From Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge
      (ca. 1st cent. BCE) Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a Greek historian and literary critic from Halicarnassus in southwestern Asia Minor who moved to Rome in about 30 BCE where he taught rhetoric and became a great enthusiast for all things Roman. Much of his work survives: his Roman Antiquities, of whose twenty books we have the first ten, began publication in 7 BCE. MORE
    • Epictetus
      From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
      (55–135 CE) Epictetus was a Greek slave who became a leading voice of Stoicism during the Roman Principate. He was a student of Musonius Rufus, a Roman Stoic philosopher. After being freed by his master Epaphroditus and then banished from Rome by the emperor Domitian, Epictetus set up a school in western Greece on the Adriatic, at Nicopolis. MORE
    • Eratosthenes
      From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
      (276–195 BCE) Eratosthenes of Cyrene was the Librarian at Alexandria and a geographer of note. Author of the Geographica, Eratosthenes mapped the world and estimated the earth’s circumference, providing one of the most accurate assessments of the ancient world. MORE
    • Euclid (ca. 300 BCE): Topic Page
      Greek mathematician whose works, and the style in which they were presented, formed the basis for all mathematical thought and expression for the following 2,000 years (although they were not entirely without fault). MORE
    • Galen
      From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
      (130–200 CE) Galen was a Greek physician from Asia Minor who was a master of medical science and physician to the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. MORE
    • Plutarch (ca. 46-ca. 120): Topic Page
      Greek essayist and biographer, b. Chaeronea, Boeotia. He traveled in Egypt and Italy, visited Rome (where he lectured on philosophy) and Athens, and finally returned to his native Boeotia, where he became a priest of the temple of Delphi. MORE
    • Polybius (ca. 203-ca. 120 BCE): Topic Page
      Greek historian, b. Megalopolis. As one of the leaders of the Achaean League and a friend of Philopoemen, he was influential in Greek politics. MORE
    • Ptolemy (ca. 100 CE): Topic Page
      (Claudius Ptolemaeus) Celebrated Greco-Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He made his observations in Alexandria and was the last great astronomer of ancient times. MORE
    • Strabo
      From Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia
      (63 BCE–21 CE) Strabo was the Greek writer of Geography, an influential treatise on history and geography. Strabo was a Stoic philosopher influenced by Athenodorus, a contemporary Stoic philosopher, Xenarchus, a notable Peripatetic philosopher, and the geographer Tyrannion. MORE
    • Timaeus
      From The Columbia Encyclopedia
      (ca. 356–ca. 260 BCE) Greek historian of Tauromenium (now Taormina), Sicily. Son of the tyrant of the city, he was banished by Agathocles either in 317 or 312 BCE and lived for 50 years in Athens, where he wrote a history of his native land. MORE

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