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  • Native American Agriculture
    From Encyclopedia of North American Indians
    Before the Christian era many Indian cultural groups of North America cultivated plants of Mesoamerican and indigenous origin. By a.d. 1000 corn (maize), beans, and squash were their most important cultivated food plants. MORE
  • Native American Architecture
    From Encyclopedia of North American Indians
    Indian architectural traditions reflected the diversity of tribal economic patterns, social organizations, historical experiences, religious systems, and worldviews. MORE
  • Mesoamerican Religion
    From Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture
    Important Mesoamerican religious themes: cosmic topography, power-filled inhabitants, calendrically determined transformation, and sacrifice. MORE
  • Mayan Literature
    From Concise Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature
    The Maya were the only people of America's high cultures who developed a glyph-writ language (a partly ideographic, partly phonetic mode of writing) capable of recording events. MORE
  • Quipu
    From Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Quipu is an Andean mnemonic device consisting of primary and secondary cords (spun of llama or alpaca wool) of various colors on which are several types of variously spaced knots. MORE


Cover Art
Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin
Written by contemporary authorities, the volume features many Native American contributors - including eminent writers, tribal elders, scholars, and activists - with voices as distinct as their subjects, offering a deeper and more informed appreciation of American Indian life, past and present.

Cover Art
Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture
Presents a processual view of Mexican history, society and culture from ancient civilizations to the present day.

Cover Art
Canada's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook
In this comprehensive reference, Historian J.M. Bumsted takes readers on a chronological tour of Canada's ethnic history.


  • Aztec: Topic Page
    Member of an American Indian people who migrated south into the valley of Mexico in about 1168. MORE
  • Inca: Topic Page
    Pre-Columbian empire, W South America. MORE
  • Maya civilization: Topic Page
    One of the great cultures of mesoamerica, Maya civilization extended throughout southern mexico and northern Central America. MORE
  • Mound Builders: Topic Page
    Name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts. MORE
  • Olmec: Topic Page
    The culture of ancient Mexican natives inhabiting the tropical coastal plain of the contemporary states of Veracruz and Tabasco, between 1300 and 400 B.C. MORE
  • Pre-Columbian Civilizations
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Despite some technological limitations, a few Native American civilizations had achieved a high level of development before the arrival of European explorers. MORE
  • Zapotec: Topic Page
    Indigenous people of Mexico, primarily in S Oaxaca and on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. MORE


  • Cahokia
    From Encyclopedia of North American Indians
    Cahokia was a major Mississippian urban center. Occupied between about AD 700 and AD 1250, the core of the site covered more than two hundred acres and was surrounded by a wooden palisade containing in excess of twenty thousand logs. MORE
  • Machu Picchu: Topic Page
    Inca site in Peru. The imposing city is one of the largest pre-Columbian sites found virtually intact. MORE
  • Mesoamerica
    From Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries
    Coined in 1943 by the scholar Paul Kirchoff, the name Mesoamerica is used to describe the culture area of the ancient civilizations of central and southern Mexico and northern Central America. MORE
  • Palenque
    From Encyclopedia of Archaeology: History and Discoveries
    Palenque is a classic Maya site and kingdom in the southern state of Chiapas in Mexico. MORE
  • Serpent Mound
    From Encyclopedia of North American Indians
    The largest known serpent effigy in the world, Great Serpent Mound is located in rural Ohio. The mound's form is of an undulating serpent, uncoiling and opening its mouth to swallow a large oval. MORE
  • Teotihuacán: Topic Page
    Ancient commercial and religious center in the central valley of Mexico. The largest (c.7 sq mi/18.1 sq km) and most impressive urban site of ancient America. MORE

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