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This is the "Africa and Egypt" page of the "History Credo Reference" guide.
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Last Updated: Nov 14, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Africa and Egypt Print Page


  • Ethiopia: Topic Page
    The first kingdom for which there is documentary evidence is that of Aksum (Axum), a kingdom which probably emerged in the 2d cent. A.D., thus making Ethiopia the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the most ancient in the world. MORE
  • Nile River: Topic Page
    Summary Article: Nile River (and White Nile) from Encyclopedia of Environment and Society
    THE NILE RIVER is the longest river in the world and flows northward from its sources in eastern Africa toward the Mediterranean Sea. It spans 4,000 miles (6,700 kilometers), beginning at Lake Victoria, which is perched in the highlands of east Africa on the equator and is just one of the three sources of the Nile. The branch of the river that starts from Lake Victoria is known as the White Nile. This branch provides the greatest volume of water to the Nile River as it flows year round. However, not much of the Nile’s waters reach Egypt due to evaporation across the desert.
  • Nubia: Topic Page
    Ancient state of NE Africa. At the height of its political power Nubia extended, from north to south, from the First Cataract of the Nile (near Aswan, Egypt) to Khartoum, in Sudan. MORE
  • Sahara: Topic Page
    It was not until c.3000 B.C. that the Sahara transformed into its present arid state. The camel was introduced probably in the 1st cent. A.D. and facilitated occupation by nomads. MORE
  • Thebes
    From A Guide to the Ancient World
    A city on the Nile in Upper Egypt, four hundred and forty-six miles south of Cairo. The capital of the Pharaonic empire in the second millennium BC—replacing Memphis—Thebes was later praised for its wealth in Homer's Iliad. MORE


  • Akhenaten
    From Encyclopedia of African History
    King of the Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty, Akhenaten reigned from approximately 1360 to 1343bce. Akhenaten is notable for having briefly replaced the entire Egyptian pantheon with a single deity, the Aten, the physical manifestation of the sun. MORE
  • Cleopatra: Topic Page
    69 B.C.–30 B.C.,Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, who died in 51BC. By the terms of his will he appointed her joint successor, as Cleopatra VII, with her younger brother as Ptolemy XIII. MORE
  • Hamilcar Barca
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Carthaginian general. He was assigned the command in Sicily in 247 in the First Punic War (see Punic Wars). From mountain bases near Palermo he made repeated raids on the Romans and relieved the Punic garrison in Lilybaeum. MORE
  • Hannibal
    From The Reader's Companion to Military History
    Son of the distinguished Carthaginian general and empire-builder Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal presented the Roman republic with its greatest military challenge. MORE
  • Nefertiti
    From The Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women
    Probably born in Mitanni, an empire based in what is now northern Iraq, Nefertiti became the chief wife of the intellectual Egyptian ruler Amenhotep IV (reigned about 1379–1362 BC). MORE
  • Ramses II, King of Egypt: Topic Page
    Summary Article: Ramses II from The Columbia Encyclopedia
    răm'sēz, Rameses II, or Ramesses IIboth: răm'əsēz´´, d. 1225 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XIX dynasty. The son of Seti I, Ramses was not the heir to the throne but usurped it from his brother. He reigned for 67 years (1292–1225 B.C.). Under him Egypt acquired unprecedented splendor. His empire extended from S Syria to near the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. The most notable incident of his reign was the battle near Kadesh on the Orontes, where the Egyptians were ambushed by the Hittites. Ramses, claiming to have saved his forces single-handed, had vast texts written about his personal valor. War continued with the Hittites for about 15 years until Ramses concluded a treaty of friendship (1280) with the Hittite king and married (1267) a Hittite princess.
  • Tutankhamen, King of Egypt: Topic Page
    Summary Article: Tutankhamen from Encyclopedia of African Religion
    Nebkheperara Tutankhamen (1342-1323 BC) was a short-lived and relatively insignificant ruler during a troubled time in the history of Kernet. He became king during the fabled 18th dynasty, but was responsible for nothing remarkable. Few people had ever mentioned his life or his rule prior to the 1922 discovery of his tomb by the Englishman Howard Carter, who had been commissioned by Lord Carnavon. Buried with Tutankhamen were treasures that had been undisturbed by grave robbers, a rarity in the Valley of the Kings, and thus the discovery assured the king of historical fame. Tutankhamen was named at birth Tutankhaten after the deity his father Akhenaten had chosen as the state deity of Kernet. He later took the name Tutankhamen, “the living image of Amen,” to reflect his return to the great deity Amen

General History

  • Africa: Topic Page
    Second-largest continent (after Asia), straddling the equator and lying largely within the tropics. Africa's first great civilization emerged in ancient Egypt in c.3400 BC. Carthage was founded by Phoenicians in the 9th century BC. MORE
  • Ancient Egypt: Topic Page
    Ancient civilization, based around the River Nile in Egypt, which emerged 5,000 years ago and reached its peak in the 16th century BC. MORE
  • Battle of Zama (BCE 202)
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Battle fought 202 BC in Numidia (now Algeria), in which the Carthaginians under Hannibal were defeated by the Romans under the younger Scipio, so ending the Second Punic War. MORE
  • Carthage: Topic Page
    Ancient Phoenician port in North Africa founded by colonists from Tyre in the late 9th century BC. A leading trading centre, it was in conflict with Greece from the 6th century BC, and then with Rome, and was destroyed by Roman forces in 146 BC at the end of the Punic Wars. MORE


  • Egyptian language: Topic Page
    Extinct language of ancient Egypt. Developed during four periods: (1) Old Egyptian (3d millennium B.C.); (2) Middle Egyptian (2134 - 1354 B.C.) (3) Late Egyptian (to 12th cent. B.C.); and (4) demotic (8th cent. B.C. - 5th cent. A.D.). MORE
  • Ethiopic: Topic Page
    Extinct language of Ethiopia belonging to the North Ethiopic group of the South Semitic (or Ethiopic) languages, which, in turn, belong to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic family of languages. MORE
  • Hieroglyphics: Topic Page
    Egyptian hieroglyphics appear in several stages: the first dynasty (3110–2884 B.C.), when they were already perfected; the Old Kingdom; the Middle Kingdom. MORE
  • Rosetta Stone
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Slab of basalt with inscriptions from 197 BC, found near the town of Rosetta, Egypt, 1799. Giving the same text in three versions - Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic script - it became the key to deciphering other Egyptian inscriptions. MORE


Cover Art
Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge
The whole arena of Egyptian life is expressed in this work. Not only are there nearly a thousand biographies, there's also a chapter on "Encountering the Ancient Egyptians", sections on kingship and on religion, a chronology, and explanation of key terms such as calendars and pyramid texts.

Cover Art
Encyclopedia of African History
Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia is an A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent.


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