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China

  • China: Topic Page
    Since the 2d millennium B.C. a unique and fairly uniform culture has spread over almost all of China. MORE
  • Great Wall of China: Topic Page
    Fortifications, c.1,500 mi (2,400 km) long, winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Hebei prov. on the Yellow Sea. MORE
  • Warring States Period (BCE 403 - 221)
    From Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations
    The second half of the Eastern Zhou dynastic period witnessed emergence of about 170 city-states in north central China, ultimately reduced by war, conquest, and merger to fewer than ten, and then to one: Qin, which began the classical period of Imperial China. MORE
  • Yangtze River (China): Topic Page
    Longest river of China and Asia. The official name for the entire length of the river is Chang Jiang; the Yangtze refers to a 650 km/400 mi stretch of the river identified with the Yang Kingdom of the 10th century BC.

India

  • Ganges River (India and Bangladesh): Topic Page
    Summary Article: Ganges River from Encyclopedia of Environment and Society
    THE GANGES RIVER, 1,557 miles in length, flows eastward along the border separating the Himalayan complex and the flat expanse of the Indian subcontinent. Known to Hindus as the Ganga, the river is a source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industry. The Ganges is worshipped in the Hindu religion as a goddess. People bathe in the waters of the Ganges to be cleansed of sins and to ensure salvation. It is believed that drinking water from the river with one’s final breath will deliver the soul to heaven. The number of people living along the broad Ganges river valley approaches 300 million.
  • Indus Valley civilization: Topic Page
    Ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries. MORE
  • Sanskrit literature: Topic Page
    Literary works written in Sanskrit constituting the main body of the classical literature of India. MORE

Japan

  • Ainu
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Aborigines of Japan who may be descended from a Caucasoid people who once lived in N Asia. More powerful invaders from the Asian mainland gradually forced the Ainu to retreat to the northern islands of Japan and Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in what is now the Russian Far East. MORE
  • Hokkaido: Topic Page
    It is the second largest, northernmost, and most sparsely populated of the major islands of Japan. MORE
  • Honshu: Topic Page
    The largest of the four main islands of Japan, between the Pacific and the Sea of Japan; regarded as the Japanese mainland. MORE
  • Japan: Topic Page
    The divine design of the empire—supposedly founded in 660 B.C. by the emperor Jimmu, a lineal descendant of the sun goddess and ancestor of the present emperor—was held as official dogma until 1945. MORE
  • Kyushu: Topic Page
    An island of SW Japan: the southernmost of Japan's four main islands, with over 300 surrounding small islands; coalfield and chemical industries. MORE
  • Shikoku
    From The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia
    Smallest of the four main islands of Japan, south of Honshu, east of Kyushu; area 18,800 sq km/7,250 sq mi; population (2000 est) 4,154,000. MORE

Religion and Philosophy

  • Bhagavad Gita: Topic Page
    Sanskrit poem incorporated into the Mahabharata, one of the greatest religious classics of Hinduism. MORE
  • Buddha: Topic Page
    [Skt.,=the enlightened One], usual title given to the founder of Buddhism. He is also called the Tathagata [he who has come thus], Bhagavat [the Lord], and Sugata [well-gone]. He probably lived from 563 to 483 B.C. MORE
  • Buddhism: Topic Page
    Religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. The basic doctrines of early Buddhism include the "four noble truths": existence is suffering (dukhka); suffering has a cause, namely craving and attachment (trishna). MORE
  • Confucianism: Topic Page
    Moral and religious system of China. Its origins go back to the Analects, the sayings attributed to Confucius, and to ancient commentaries. In its early form (before the 3d cent. B.C.) Confucianism was primarily a system of ethical precepts for the proper management of society. MORE
  • Hinduism: Topic Page
    The Western term for a religious tradition developed during the first millennium and intertwined with the history and social system of India. MORE
  • Mahabharata: Topic Page
    Classical Sanskrit epic of India, probably composed between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200. MORE
  • Shintoism
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Ancient native religion of Japan still practiced in a form modified by the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism. MORE
  • Taoism: Topic Page
    The philosophical system stems largely from the Tao-te-ching, a text traditionally ascribed to Lao Tzu but probably written in the mid-3d cent. B.C. MORE
  • Veda: Topic Page
    Oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the most ancient religious texts in an Indo-European language. MORE
  • Vedic Religion
    From Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
    Ancient religion of India that was contemporary with the composition of the Vedas and was the precursor of Hinduism. MORE
  • Yin and Yang: Topic Page
    The Chinese concept that everything is explicable in terms of two complementary but opposing principles. MORE
 

Books

Cover Art
Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy - Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam
Covers the main traditions within Asian thought: Persian; Indian; Buddhist; Chinese; Japanese; and Islamic philosophy. Each section provides comprehensive coverage of the origins of the tradition, its approaches to, for example, logic and languages, and to questions of morals and society. Also contains useful histories of the lives of the key influential thinkers, as well as a thorough analysis of the current trends.

Cover Art
Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend
Provides accessible, informative and authoritative entries to answer any major question about Hinduism, its mythology, practices, customs and laws.

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