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Independence and After Print Page

Cultural Figures

  • Chinua Achebe (1930 - ): Topic Page
    1930–, Nigerian writer. In 2007 he was awarded the Man Booker International Prize.MORE
  • Fela Kuti (1938 - 1997)
    From The Faber Companion to 20th Century Popular Music
    The creator of the Afrobeat style of music (in which African rhythms replaced American R&B and soul rhythms), Kuti was the most politically outspoken of the African musicians who found international success in the seventies and eighties. MORE
  • Franz Fanon (1925 - 1961)
    From France and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    The writings of Frantz Fanon constitute a complex reflection on the legacy of slavery and empire on both sides of the Atlantic. MORE
  • JM Coetzee (1940 - ): Topic Page
    Writer and critic, born in Cape Town, SW South Africa. The political situation in his native country provides him with the base from which to launch his allegories and fables, attacking colonialism and demythologizing historical and contemporary myths of imperialism. MORE
  • Molefi Asante (1942 - )
    From African-American Writers: A Dictionary
    The founder of the Afrocentric school of thought and a preeminent scholar of African-American history and traditions. MORE
  • Ousmane Sembene (1923 - 2007): Topic Page
    Senegalese author and film director who wrote and made films in French and Wolof, often regarded as the father of sub-Saharan African cinema. MORE
  • Wole Soyinka (1934 - ): Topic Page
    Writer, born near Abeokuta, SW Nigeria. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986. MORE


  • African Art
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    From its ancient civilizations to contemporary culture, Africa has been a continent of extraordinary artistic creativity. MORE
  • African Literature
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    Literary works of the African continent. African literature consists of a body of work in different languages and various genres, ranging from oral literature to literature written in colonial languages (French, Portuguese, and English). MORE
  • Cricket: Topic Page
    A bat-and-ball team game of 11-a-side. MORE
  • Music of Postcolonial Africa
    From Encyclopedia of African History
    Traditional music transcends age, gender, and social class. Popular music blends local and global influences and is most fashionable among urban youth. MORE
  • Soccer: Topic Page
    Form of football originating in the UK, popular throughout the world. MORE
  • Soukous
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Probably the most influential African musical style, and definitely the most popular African dance music of the twentieth century. MORE


  • Civil War in Postcolonial Africa
    From Encyclopedia of African History
    Since 1945, Africa has witnessed a range of wars, beginning with independence struggles against the colonial powers that often merged into postcolonial power struggles and civil wars, while after 1960 there have also been a number of wars between African states. MORE
  • Rwandan Genocide
    From A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures
    Between 6 April and July 1994, 1 million Rwandan citizens were killed. The vast majority of these victims belonged to the Tutsi socio-ethnic group. MORE

Health Issues

  • AIDS: Topic Page
    AIDS is the world's most deadly STD and the fourth leading global cause of death. MORE
  • Famine: Topic Page
    Severe shortage of food affecting a large number of people. MORE
  • Malaria: Topic Page
    Infectious parasitic disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes, marked by periodic fever and an enlarged spleen. MORE
  • Schistosomiasis: Topic Page
    Bilharziasis, or snail fever, parasitic disease caused by blood flukes, trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. MORE
  • Tropical Medicine: Topic Page
    Study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of certain diseases prevalent in the tropics. MORE
  • Trypanosomiasis: Topic Page
    Two types of African sleeping sickness are caused, respectively, by Trypanosoma rhodesiense and T. gambiense, both transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly. MORE
  • Vaccination: Topic Page
    Means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms. MORE


Cover Art
Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt
Covering the period from 1760 to the present, provides biodata, biographical sketches, and source material for men and women who have played a major role in Egypt's national life.

Cover Art
World Politics Since 1945
Essential reading for those who need to understand the great sweeps of contemporary history.

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A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and its Empires
Provides an integrated and authoritative body of information about the political, cultural and economic contexts of postcolonial literatures that have their provenance in the major European Empires of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain as well as places like Latin America and the Philippines


  • African National Congress: Topic Page
    Summary Article: African National Congress from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide
    South African political party, founded in 1912 as a multiracial nationalist organization with the aim of extending the franchise to the whole population and ending all racial discrimination. It was banned by the government from 1960 to January 1990. It has been South Africa's ruling party from 2004. Its president from 2007 is Jacob Zuma.
  • Organization of African Unity (OAU)
    From Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts
    Established in Addis Ababa in 1963, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is a vehicle for collaboration and unity among African nations. MORE

Leaders and Politicians

  • Idi Amin (1925 - 2003)
    From An African Biographical Dictionary
    One of the most notorious contemporary dictators in modern African history. MORE
  • Steve Biko (1947 - 1977)
    From An African Biographical Dictionary
    Steve Biko was the inspiration and intellectual leader of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and became its martyr. MORE
  • Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah (1895 - 1965)
    From An African Biographical Dictionary
    Dr. Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah, a major nationalist figure and a leader of opposition during the presidency of Kwame Nkrumah, was also a scholar and intellectual.MORE
  • Kenneth Kaunda (1924 - ): Topic Page
    Zambian politician, president 1964-91. Imprisoned 1958-60 as founder of the Zambia African National Congress, in 1964 he became the first president of independent Zambia. MORE
  • Jomo Kenyatta (1891 - 1978)
    From An African Biographical Dictionary
    Mzee Jomo Kenyatta was the first president of Kenya and the leading figure in his country's independence movement. MORE
  • Nelson Mandela (1918 - ): Topic Page
    1918–, South African statesman; winner of the Nobel peace prize. MORE
  • Thabo Mbeki (1942 - ): Topic Page
    1942–, South African political leader. Mbeki was Mandela's choice as his successor as leader of the ANC, and he became the country's second postapartheid president after the ANC's landslide win in 1999. MORE
  • Hosni Mubarak (1928 - ): Topic Page
    Egyptian soldier and politician, president from 1981. He was vice-president to Anwar Sadat from 1975 and became president on Sadat's assassination in October 2001. MORE
  • Robert Mugabe (1924 - ): Topic Page
    Zimbabwean politician, prime minister from 1980 and executive president from 1987. MORE
  • Gamal Nasser (1918 - 1970): Topic Page
    Egyptian army officer and political leader, first president of the republic of Egypt (1956–70). A pan-Arabist and advocate of Third-World unity, Nasser was one of the most important Arab leaders of the 20th cent. MORE
  • Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972): Topic Page
    1909–72, African political leader, prime minister (1957–60) and president (1960–66) of Ghana. Under his leadership the Gold Coast achieved (1957) independence and, in 1960, became the Republic of Ghana. MORE
  • Muammar Qaddafi (1942 - 2011): Topic Page
    1942–, Libyan political leader. Blending Arab nationalism, revolutionary socialism, and Islamic orthodoxy, Qaddafi proceeded to run Libya's government as a stridently anti-Western dictatorship. MORE
  • Anwar El-Sadat (1918 - 1981)
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, also known as Anwar el-Sadat and Anwar al-Sadat, was president of the Arab Republic of Egypt (1970-1981) and the “architect of a new Mideast.” Sadat was assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists within his own army on October 6, 1981. MORE
  • Haile Selassie (1892 - 1975): Topic Page
    Emperor of Ethiopia (1930–74). He was born Tafari Makonnen, the son of a noted general and the grandnephew of Emperor Menelik II. MORE
  • Charles Taylor (1948 - )
    From The Encyclopedia of African History
    21st president of the Republic of Liberia, plunged his country into a brutal seven-year civil war that resulted in the total destruction of Liberia and the displacement of large populations. MORE


  • Afrocentrism
    From Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History
    Afrocentrism is an African American ideological and educational movement supporting and promulgating pride in peoples of African descent by locating the origins of black civilization in Egypt. MORE
  • Black Consciousness Movement
    From South Africa's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook
    In 1971 the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) emerged to provide ideological leadership, especially among the educated in black townships. MORE
  • Decolonization: Topic Page
    Gradual achievement of independence by former colonies of the European imperial powers, which began after World War I. MORE
  • Islam in Postcolonial Africa
    From Encyclopedia of African History
    There are a number of versions of Islam extant in Africa, both north and south of the Sahara. MORE
  • Mau Mau
    From Encyclopedia of Nationalism: Leaders, Movements, and Concepts
    Movement in Kenya of the late 1940s and 1950s, during the period of British colonial rule. Its intent was initially to bring about new government policies that would improve conditions for Africans in Kenya. MORE
  • Negritude
    From Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity & Culture
    The term ‘negritude’ was coined to emphasize the view that, apart from skin colour and other ‘Negroid’ physical features, there are other values and characteristics which typify individuals, or peoples, with black skin. MORE
  • Pan-Africanism: Topic Page
    General term for various movements in Africa that have as their common goal the unity of Africans and the elimination of colonialism and white supremacy from the continent. MORE
  • Revolution: Topic Page
    Any rapid, far-reaching, or violent change in the political, social, or economic structure of society. MORE

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