- Louis Agassiz (1807-1873): Topic Page
Swiss-born American naturalist noted for his study of fossil fish and for recognizing from geologic evidence that ice ages had occurred in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Sir David Attenborough (1926- ): Topic Page
Naturalist and broadcaster, born in London, UK, the brother of Richard Attenborough.
- Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876): Topic Page
Baer led expeditions to Arctic Russia to collect plant and animal specimens, studied fishes and collected human skulls (in 1859 he suggested that human skulls might have a common ancestral type, but he never supported Darwin’s ideas). His fame rests on his position as a founder of modern embryology.
- Charles Darwin (1809-1882): Topic Page
British naturalist who revolutionized the study of biology with his theory of evolution based on natural selection. His most famous works include Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).
- Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859): Topic Page
German naturalist and explorer.
- Edward Jenner (1749-1823): Topic Page
Jenner was a keen naturalist, with a special interest in birds: he was the first to show that some birds migrated (rather than hibernated) in winter, and he studied the unusual brood-parasite nesting of the cockoo.
- Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829): Topic Page
French naturalist. He is noted for his study and classification of invertebrates and for his introduction of evolutionary theories.
- John Muir (1838-1914): Topic Page
Explorer, naturalist, and conservationist, born in Dunbar, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK.
- Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680): Topic Page
Dutch naturalist known for his pioneering microscopic research. He was the first to describe red blood cells (1658).
- Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): Topic Page
British naturalist who developed a concept of evolution that paralleled the work of Charles Darwin. His works include The Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876).
- Richard Axel (1946- ): Topic Page
S neuroscientist. With US neuroscientist Linda Buck he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for his contributions in determining how the olfactory system recognizes and differentiates between different smells.
- Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842): Topic Page
Scottish anatomist and surgeon who carried out pioneering research on the human nervous system. He gave his name to Bell's palsy, an extracranial paralysis of the facial nerve - not the same as the long thoracic nerve of Bell, which he also named and which supplies a muscle in the chest wall.
- Linda Buck (1947- ): Topic Page
US neuroscientist. With US neuroscientist Richard Axel she shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for her contributions to understanding how the olfactory system is able to recognize and differentiate between different smells.
- Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)" Topic Page
French neurologist known for his research into diseases of the nervous system. Sigmund Freud was one of his pupils.
- Stanley Prusiner (1942- ): Topic Page
US neurologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1997 for discoveries, including the ‘prion’ theory, that could lead to new treatments of dementia-related diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
- David Baltimore (1938- ):Topic Page
US virologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1975 for his work with Renato Dulbecco and Howard Temin in discovering that certain viruses contain an enzyme, called reverse transcriptase, that makes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from ribonucleic acid (RNA).
- J. Michael Bishop (1936- ): Topic Page
US virologist and molecular biologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1989 with Harold Varmus for their discovery of oncogenes (cancer-causing genes), which, when over-activated or damaged, trigger a normal cell to divide in an uncontrolled fashion.
- John Cairns (1922- ): Topic Page
English virologist whose research has focused on cancer and influenza. In 1959 he succeeded in carrying out genetic mapping of an animal virus for the first time.
- Albert Sabin (1906-1933): Topic Page
Russian-born US virologist who devoted his long and distinguished career to the development of protective vaccines.