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Last Updated: Nov 8, 2017 URL: http://libguides.warner.edu/content.php?pid=663191 Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Second Wave Print Page

Achievements of the Second Wave

  • Corning Glass Works v. Brennan
    From From Suffrage to Senate: America's Political Women
    In Corning Glass Works v. Brennan, the first equal pay case to reach the U.S. Supreme Court, the Court found that Corning Glass Works’ pay policies violated the Equal Pay Act of 1963 by paying a higher base wage to male night shift inspectors than it paid to female inspectors performing the same tasks on the day shift.
  • Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX
    From From Suffrage to the Senate: America's Political Women
    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits institutions receiving federal funds from practicing gender discrimination in educational programs or activities. It was the first comprehensive federal law to prohibit sex discrimination against students and employees in these institutions.
  • Roe v. Wade: Topic Page
    Case decided in 1973 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Along with Doe v. Bolton, this decision legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. The decision, written by Justice Harry Blackmun and based on the residual right of privacy, struck down dozens of state antiabortion statutes.
  • The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (United States)
    From The Reader's Companion to US Women's History
    Before passage of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act in October 1974, most women had difficulty obtaining credit without a male cosigner. In the 1960s, as women increasingly entered the work force, they demanded individual access to consumer credit.
  • The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (United States)
    From From Suffrage to the Senate: America's Political Women
    The Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal for private employers to have different rates of pay for women and men doing the same work. It was the first federal law to address sex discrimination.

Issues of the Second Wave

  • Birth Control: Topic Page
    In the late 1960s the women’s movement gave rise to a reproductive rights movement whose goals encompassed legalizing abortion, promoting easier and safer contraception, and fighting racist and classist birth-control programs. The vibrancy and successes of that reproductive rights movement, as well as its broad attack on traditional gender roles, stimulated the backlash politics of the New Right.
  • Equal Rights Amendment: Topic Page
    The National Organization of Women made ratification of the ERA central to its mission, and, together with other interests, it undertook a major effort during the 1960s and early 1970s, culminating in the passage of the ERA by Congress in 1972. However, , it failed to be ratified by sufficient states by the stipulated deadline of July 1982.
  • Sexual Discrimination: Topic Page
    Sexual discrimination involves treating someone differently, usually less favourably, because of his or her gender.
  • Sexual Harrassment: Topic Page
    In law, verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature, aimed at a particular person or group of people, especially in the workplace or in academic or other institutional settings, that is actionable, as in tort or under equal-opportunity statutes.
  • Women's Sexuality: Heterosexuality vs. Homosexuality
    From Encyclopedia of Gender and Society
    The specific concerns of lesbians came to the fore as part of a broader challenge against sexism. Betty Friedan called lesbians a “lavender menace” that threatened to taint the reputation of the feminist movement, driving women away out of fear of association and diverting attention from more-important campaigns for women’s equality.

Leaders and Activists of the Second Wave

  • Betty Friedan (1921-2006): Topic Page

    Writer and feminist leader; As a result of surveys of female college graduates, she came to identify certain problems that women were experiencing in their lives.
  • Emma Goldman (1869-1940): Topic Page
    “Red Emma,” the archetypal anarchist rebel best known for her defense of individual freedom and the rights of workers, became one of the most reviled women of her time. Much was made of Goldman’s perceived “infamy” as a female political firebrand and her many colorful affairs as an advocate of free love.
  • Gloria Steinem (1934- ): Topic Page

    Gloria Steinem was famous for her wit and incisive commentaries on women’s rights, her invention of the neutral term Ms. for single women, and her critiques of the family and gender roles.
  • Margaret Sanger (1879-1966): Topic Page
    Birth control advocate; She moved to New York City (1912) where she became active in the women’s labour movement and the Socialist Party. She concluded that control over childbearing was the key to female emancipation, and was appalled by women’s ignorance of contraception, which she experienced first-hand working as a practical nurse in New York City (1912).

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