- Affirmative Action: Topic Page
In the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
- African-Americans: Topic Page
Americans descended from African forebears, usually those enslaved and brought to the USA before the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation.
- Civil Rights Movement: Topic Page
US movement especially active during the 1950s and 60s that aimed to end segregation and discrimination against blacks, as well as affirm their constitutional rights and improve their status in society.
- Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: Topic Page
Addition to the U.S. Constitution, adopted 1868. The amendment comprises five sections.
- NAACP: Topic Page
Organization composed mainly of American blacks, but with many white members, whose goal is the end of racial discrimination and segregation.
- Racism Topic Page
Racism can be described as an extreme form of ethnocentrism (i.e., seeing one’s language, customs, ways of thinking, and material culture as preferable). But instead of using cultural factors to mark differences that can be overcome if some are willing and able to adopt beliefs and customs of others, racial boundaries depend on perceptions of physical distinctions between human body types, which are seen to be expressions of innate, biological divergence.