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Journalism 1 Print Page


  • Journalism: Topic Page
    The collection and periodic publication or transmission of news through media such as newspaper, periodical, television, and radio.
  • Photography: Topic Page
    Process for reproducing permanent images on light-sensitive materials by various forms of radiant energy, including visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, X-rays, atomic radiations, and electron beams.
  • Watchdog journalism
    From Key Concepts in Journalism Studies
    The characterization of journalism as a social ‘watchdog’ springs from a classical liberal conception of the power relationship between government and society within a democratic state.
  • Yellow journalism
    From Key Concepts in Journalism Studies
    This developed in America during the 1880s but had its roots in the new penny papers exemplified by the New York Sun, published by Benjamin Day in 1833 and targeted at a newly literate American working-class readership.
  • Impartiality
    From Key Concepts in Journalism Studies
    Broadcasters are bound by law and their own guidelines to be impartial. Newspapers are not. At its simplest, expressed in the former Radio Authority's code of practice, it means not taking sides. But as Wilson (1996: 43) points out, ‘It is in the class of understanding which says the elephant is difficult to describe but easy to recognize’.
  • Ethics (of journalism)
    From Key Concepts in Journalism Studies
    Journalism ethics are the moral principles, reflected in rules, written or unwritten, which prescribe how journalists should work to avoid harming or distressing others, e.g. when gathering information; when deciding what to publish; when responding to complaints about their work.

Freedom of the Press

  • Freedom of the press in Africa
    From Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
    Press freedom in Africa is a complex, checkered, nonlinear affair. It was mostly nonexistent during the colonial period in most of the linguistic regions of the continent. It evolved from colonial subjugation, to tight government control during the period of the one-party state and apartheid, to the relative freedom of the present.
  • Freedom of the press in Asia
    From Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
    This article points out that that the political structures of Asian countries do not reflect a common set of “Asian values,” even though that concept is used as justification for controlling the press (or, more accurately, all outlets used for public communication).
  • Freedom of the press of the former Soviet republics
    From Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
    Of the former Soviet republics, the Baltic states have developed the most tolerant atmosphere for journalists. Most international watchdog groups that chronicle infringements on press freedom do not even include Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania in their annual reports.
  • Freedom of the press in Latin America
    From Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
    Political scientist Samuel Huntington has written that “democracy is a solution to the problem of tyranny, but not necessarily to anything else.” The problems faced by the Latin American press are in a real sense the problems of Latin America as a whole: poverty, violent conflict, inadequate economic development, chronic inflation and substantial external debt, and political leaders who in some cases are not fully committed to the rule of law.
  • Freedom of the press in in the Middle East and North Africa
    From Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
    The authoritarian regimes, quasi-police states, oligarchies, and military-backed governments that dominate the political landscape of the Middle East and North Africa provide formidable obstacles to press freedom and independent journalism.

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