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19th Century Print Page



  • Novel: Topic Page
    The novel became the dominant form of Western literature in the 19th cent., which produced many works that are considered milestones in the development of the form.
  • Realism
    From The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English
    A term first used in France in the 1850s to characterize works concerned with representing the world as it is rather than as it ought to be, with description rather than invention.
  • Romanticism: Topic Page
    The basic aims of romanticism were a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity; the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator; the development of nationalistic pride; and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect.
  • Symbolism: Topic Page
    Originating in France in the 1880s, Symbolism developed after Romanticism and before surrealism in its exploration of the world of imaginative, dreamlike fantasy.


  • Honore de Balzac (1799 - 1850): Topic Page
    French novelist, born in Tours. Balzac ranks among the great masters of the novel.
  • Alphonse Daudet (1840 - 1897): Topic Page
    French writer, b. Nîmes (Provence). Daudet made his mark with gentle naturalistic stories and novels portraying French life both in the provinces and in Paris.
  • Alexandre Dumas (1802 - 1870): Topic Page

    French writer, known as Dumas père (the father). His popular historical romances were the reworked output of a ‘fiction-factory’ of collaborators.
  • Gustave Flaubert (1821 - 1880): Topic Page
    French writer. One of the major novelists of the 19th century, he was the author of Madame Bovary (1857), Salammbô (1862), L'Education sentimentale/Sentimental Education (1869), and La Tentation de Saint Antoine/The Temptation of St Anthony (1874).
  • Anatole France (1844 - 1924)
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    French writer. He was probably the most prominent French man of letters of his time.
  • Victor Hugo (1802 - 1885): Topic Page
    French novelist, poet, and dramatist. His melodramatic novels include Notre-Dame de Paris (1831), and Les Misérables (1862).
  • Gaston Leroux (1868 - 1927)
    From The Crystal Reference Encyclopedia
    Journalist and novelist, born in Paris, France.
  • Guy de Maupassant (1850 - 1893): Topic Page
    French novelist and short-story writer. Maupassant is a modern exemplar of traditional French psychological realism; he portrays his characters as unhappy victims of their greed, desire, or vanity but presents even the most sordid details of their lives without sermonizing.
  • Marcel Proust (1871 - 1922): Topic Page
    French novelist. He is one of the great literary figures of the modern age.
  • George Sand (1804 - 1876): Topic Page
    Famous now for her unconventional lifestyle and her numerous love affairs, Sand was in her lifetime a literary lioness and one of the most influential women of her generation.
  • Stendhal (1783 - 1842): Topic Page
    French author of Le Rouge et le Noir (1831, tr. The Red and the Black), La Chartreuse de Parme (1839, tr. The Charterhouse of Parma).
  • Eugène Sue (1804 - 1857)
    From Chambers Biographical Dictionary
    French novelist; had a profound influence on Victor Hugo, whose Les Misérables has much in common with Sue's Les Mystères de Paris (1843).
  • Jules Verne (1828 - 1905): Topic Page
    French writer, born in Nantes. Jules Verne began his series of Voyages extraordinaires dans les mondes connus et inconnus (“Extraordinary Voyages to Known and Unknown Worlds”) in 1862.
  • Emile Zola (1840 - 1902): Topic Page
    French novelist, b. Paris. He was a professional writer, earning his living through journalism and his novels.



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