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Description: Credo Reference is a general reference resource with full-text, aggregated content covering every major subject from the world's best publishers of reference.
- Sport: Topic Page
The modern concept of sport refers mainly to organized and competitive physical activities such as cricket, basketball, table tennis, golf, or soccer and excludes recreational activities such as walking or hunting. Thus it leaves out games such as bridge, chess, or poker. This broad definition of sport reflects the universal human passion for movement.
- Doping in Sports
In sport, as in the wider world, these terms carry a specific meaning which is both pejorative and misleading. People who are said to 'take drugs' or, worse still, to 'deal drugs' are invariably thought to be an affront to decent society. Sociologists who have investigated the 'drug culture' are thought, for the sake of their research, to have walked, however briefly, on the wild side. But modern societies are, in effect, drug cultures. Most of us visit the doctor and, when we do, we can expect to be prescribed drugs. Huge trans-national companies exist to deal drugs. This is respectable, however, because it is done for medical purposes – to eradicate illness, injury and discomfort and to ease pain. Some drugs are permissible, and some are not. A medical case can be made for cannabis, for example, although it is illegal in most contemporary societies. But drugs, per se, are not an issue. Sports culture reflects this. Athletes of the modern age take a great many substances into their
- Encyclopedia of International Games
The Encyclopedia of International Games captures (in one alphabetical sequence) the histories of these games, many of them for the first time. The work includes major regional events such as the African, Asian, Arab, South Pacific, and Pan American Games; competitions such as the Indian Ocean Island Games, Arctic Winter Games, Island Games, and Games of the Small Countries of Europe; specific populations or professions such as the North American Indigenous Games, Maccabiah Games, World Military Games, World Police and Fire Games, and World Medical and Health Games; and Special Olympics, the Paralympics, games for the blind, and other regional games.