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Individual eBooks A-D

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A Halfway House for Women: Oppression and Resistance. - Gail A. Caputo
ISBN: 9781555538415
Publication Date: 2014-07-01
Although halfway houses have been touted for years as affirmative rehabilitation locations that ready women for life in the outside world, in this remarkable case study Gail Caputo shows how these places reinforce patterns of control and abuse that reaffirm the dependency and victimization of the inmates. Based on observations made while living and working alongside women at a halfway house within the prison system in a city in the Northeast, Caputo's analysis is anchored in the words and experiences of over a dozen women. Organized according to the progression of "levels" residents traverse during their time in the house, and the rules and behaviors associated with each level, Caputo offers a riveting look at what passes for "rehabilitation" and "reintegration" in such places, and delineates the many ways these women retain agency by resisting regulations designed to keep them in their place. Hardcover is un-jacketed.

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A Law Enforcement and Security Officers' Guide to Responding to Bomb Threats: Providing a Working Knowledge of Bombs, Preparing for Such Incidents, and Performing Basic Analysis of Potential Threats - Jim Smith
ISBN: 9780398087746
Publication Date: 2014-01-29
This newly revised edition is designed to integrate information in a clear and concise for¬mat to allow law enforcement to respond to bomb threats, bomb incidents, or chemical-biological-radiologi¬cal events. The reader will find the information in this book useful as a general guide to develop local protocols to meet these occurrences. With the current threat, increased vigilance and knowledge is mandatory among all law enforcement and security officers to have a working knowledge of bombs, explosives and other threats for their own protection. Among the topics discussed include the basic techniques for risk assessment and target and hazard identification. These are essential components in relating to the probability of a bombing attack and the potential outcome of such an attack. The common methods of bomb delivery, bomb construction and methods of triggering are also demonstrated. Letter bombs, vehicle bombs and high-risk facilities such as aircraft, airports, medical facilities and schools are examined as well as the utilization of chemical, biological and radiological devices and the unique hazards associated with these devices. This book also includes a section for emergency medical service personnel in treating those injured from blast, overpressure, shrapnel and chemical agents. This text is not a replacement for trained and well-equipped bomb technicians but is designed to allow the first responder to make identification of suspect items and take appropriate action until well-equipped bomb technicians arrive on the scene..

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A Manual of Private Investigation Techniques: Developing Sophisticated Investigative and Business Skills to Meet Modern Challenges. - William F. Blake (Editor)
ISBN: 9780398088552
Publication Date: 2013-02-25
This book will help the private investigator reevaluate business opportunities and identify goals for the future. The world of the private investigator is constantly changing due to the introduction of various legal requirements that have restricted or eliminated some of the methods available for obtaining information such as the various privacy protection acts. Additionally, most private investigators have restricted their business activities to a response mode; that is, conducting inquiries after an incident has occurred. Their preventive skills have been ignored to their financial detriment. As restrictions continue to be placed on private investigative activities, private investigators need to reevaluate personal skills and discover how these may relate to expanding their services. This book provides the necessary information for learning about these new skill areas and provides the necessary strategies for their implementation. Some of the topics cover crime and loss prevention strategies, risk assessment, and prevention strategies. Many other topics are also covered such as that of the expert witness. This is not a difficult status to attain but requires unique skill sets and experience and can be highly lucrative. Crises management is another skill set that is explored here. It not only identifies potential risk areas through risk assessment activities but includes development and implementation of preventive measures and shows how the private investigator can assist in restoring business operations to their normal levels. This book will be of enormous help to private investigators who wish to develop these sophisticated investigative business skills and preventive services in order to meet these challenges for surviving and thriving in this modern age industry.

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A Review Guide for o'Hara's Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation - DeVere/D Woods
ISBN: 9780398088507
Publication Date: 2013-02-14
This review guide is designed to help students learn the information presented in O’Hara’s Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation. Gregory O’Hara’s study guide has been revised and restructured to complement the eighth edition of the text. For each chapter you will find a list of key terms and multiple-choice questions. It is recommended that students first carefully read the chapter noting important points and information, then review the key terms and return to the text to clarify any unfamiliar topics. When confident of your understanding of the key terms, proceed to the questions. Most questions are restatements of information in the chapter. Some, however, may require students to apply the chapter information to derive the correct answer. Test your understanding of the material by trying to answer the questions. Correct answers can be found in the back of the study guide. For questions you answered incorrectly, return to the text and review the appropriate information. Through this process of review and self-testing, students can increase their understanding of complexities of the criminal investigation process. This guide is an excellent companion volume to the bestselling textbook and will be useful to students who are reviewing the important elements of this discipline in other criminal justice texts.

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Accountability by Camera: Online Video's Effects on Police-Civilian Interactions. - Douglas A. Kelly
ISBN: 9781593327576
Publication Date: 2014-07-01
Online video can bypass police jurisdictional influence over traditional mass media and may be affecting police-civilian interactions in American public space as the initial cusp of a paradigm shift. Where a camera may have videorecorded police actions, exclusive police custody of that camera or its recording correlates with the video being lost, destroyed, reported as nonexistent, or concealed from the public. Where police destroy, falsify, fail to file, or omit data from required documentation, online video correlates with improved accountability through police disciplinary actions. Online video correlates with significantly higher civil suit settlements for police misconduct.

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Actor-Network Theory Crime Studies: Explorations in Science and Technology - Dominique Robert; Martin Dufresne
ISBN: 9781472417107
Publication Date: 2015-01-02
Developed by Bruno Latour and his collaborators, actor-network theory (ANT) offers crimes studies a worthy intellectual challenge. It requires us to take the performativity turn, consider the role of objects in our analysis and conceptualize all actants (human and non-human) as relational beings. Thus power is not the property of one party, but rather it is an effect of the relationships among actants. This innovative collection provides a series of empirical and theoretical contributions that shows: ¢ The importance of conceptualizing and analyzing technologies as crucial actants in crime and crime control. ¢ The many facets of ANT: its various uses, its theoretical blending with other approaches, its methodological implications for the field. ¢ The fruitfulness of ANT for studying technologies and crime studies: its potential and limitations for understanding the world and revamping crime studies research goals. Students, academics and policy-makers will benefit from reading this collection in order to explore criminology-related topics in a different way.

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An Eye for an Eye: A Global History of Crime and Punishment - Mitchel P. Roth
ISBN: 9781780233598
Publication Date: 2015-02-15
From "an eye for an eye” to debates over capital punishment, humanity has a long and controversial relationship with doling out justice for criminal acts. Today, crime and punishment remain significant parts of our culture, but societies vary greatly on what is considered criminal and how it should be punished. In this global survey of crime and punishment throughout history, Mitchel P. Roth examines how and why we penalize certain activities, and he scrutinizes the effectiveness of such efforts in both punishing wrongdoers and bringing a sense of justice to victims.             Drawing on anthropology, archaeology, folklore, and literature, Roth chronicles the global history of crime and punishment--from early civilizations to the outlawing of sex crimes and serial homicide to the development of organized crime and the threat today of global piracy. He explores the birth of the penitentiary and the practice of incarceration as well as the modern philosophy of rehabilitation, arguing that these are perhaps the most important advances in the effort to safeguard citizens from harm. Looking closely at the retributions societies have condoned, Roth also look at execution and its many forms, showing how stoning, hemlock, the firing squad, and lethal injection are considered either barbaric or justified across different cultures. Ultimately, he illustrates that despite advances in every level of human experience, there is remarkable continuity in what is considered a crime and the sanctions administered.             Perfect for students, academics, and general readers alike, this interdisciplinary book provides a fascinating look at criminality and its consequences.

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Behavioural Analysis of Crime: Studies in David Canter's Investigative Psychology. - Donna Youngs (Editor)
ISBN: 9780754626282
Publication Date: 2013-10-24
The intense interest in 'offender profiling' generated by FBI special agents, gave rise to an explosion of studies in a new area called 'investigative psychology' by its originator David Canter. This develops understanding of offenders' behaviour that can be harnessed to improve investigations. In this rapidly developing area much has been learnt about what offenders reveal about themselves through their styles of offending. Beyond criminals' actions the location of their crimes can also reveal where the offender lives or which offences can be linked as part of the same series. Investigative psychologists also explore how to interview witnesses and suspects and assess the veracity of accounts given. The variation in criminal style across crimes as diverse as arson, burglary, hostage negotiation, serial killing and sexual assault is reviewed, using narrative theory and criminals' emotional experience when offending as the basis for explaining these variations. This provides a framework for drawing inferences about offenders' characteristics. Studies in investigative psychology require a special methodology, developed by David Canter to allow scientific explorations in such a challenging field, previously assumed not to be open empirical study. The practical potential and applications of the research are given, as well as a selection of commentaries on the cutting edge debates that are driving the future of the investigative psychology. This new discipline is of relevance to forensic psychologists in many different settings, criminologists and law enforcement agencies, bringing together work that lays out current achievements and sets the agenda for future research in the field.

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Burning down the HouseThe End of Juvenile Prison - Nell Bernstein
ISBN: 9781595589569
Publication Date: 2014-06-03
One in three American children will be arrested by the time they are 23, and many will spend time locked inside horrific detention centres that defy everything we know about how to rehabilitate young offenders. In a clear-eyed indictment of the juvenile justice system run amok, Nell Bernstein shows that there is no right way to lock up a child. The act of isolation denies children the thing that is most essential to their growth and rehabilitation: positive relationships with caring adults. Includes first-person accounts of detention experiences from former youth offenders.

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Campus Rape Victims: How They See the Police (1) - Veronyka James
ISBN: 9781593328030
Publication Date: 2015-10-13
James attempts to accurately measure crimes that occur on a college campus and whether students¿ perceptions of police influenced their decisions to report their victimization, specifically sexual assault victimization. Her study utilized a survey methodology to gather data which were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of the analyses indicated that victimization reporting and satisfaction with the police was impacted by gender. Results also showed that fear of victimization and perceptions of crime influence satisfaction with the police. There was also limited support found for the proposition that perceptions of the police influence likelihood to report victimization.

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Capital Punishment in the U. S. States: Executing Social Inequality (1) - Sarah N. Archibald
ISBN: 9781593327729
Publication Date: 2015-02-01
Archibald attempts to find variables that can explain the variation not only in the adoption of the death penalty, but also in the implementation of capital punishment. She combines Kingdon¿s Garbage Can model and Social Control Theory to explain the differences in the adoption and implementation of the death penalty. Given that there was only one model that showed a correlation between the adoption and implementation of the death penalty and homicide rates, while other variables, such as race and hate crimes, were correlated across multiple models, one could argue that the death penalty is used as a means of social control. Her results also bolster the argument that state policies are not merely reactions to murder rates, but are influenced by other sociological, political, and economic factors.

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Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment (1) - Hadar Aviram
ISBN: 9780520960329
Publication Date: 2015-02-06
After forty years of increasing prison construction and incarceration rates, winds of change are blowing through the American correctional system. The 2008 financial crisis demonstrated the unsustainability of the incarceration project, thereby empowering policy makers to reform punishment through fiscal prudence and austerity. In Cheap on Crime, Hadar Aviram draws on years of archival and journalistic research and builds on social history and economics literature to show the powerful impact of recession-era discourse on the death penalty, the war on drugs, incarceration practices, prison health care, and other aspects of the American correctional landscape.

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Chlorinated Solvents: A Forensic Evaluation. - Robert D. Morrison; Brian L. Murphy; Stephen Mudge (Contribution by)
ISBN: 9781849731966
Publication Date: 2013-06-12
Environmental forensics is emerging and evolving into a recognized scientific discipline with numerous applications, especially regarding chlorinated solvents. This unique book provides the reader with a concise compilation of information regarding the use of environmental forensic techniques for age dating and identification of the source of a chlorinated solvent release.  Concentrating on the five commonly encountered chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and CFC-113), forensic opportunities applicable to each are presented including the use of stabilizers, manufacturing impurities, surrogate chemicals and physical measurements and degradation products as diagnostic indicators. Detailed historical chronology of the applications of the solvents and specific chapters devoted to dry cleaning and vapor degreasing equipment are included as are generic forensic approaches. Forming a basis for further ideas in the evolution of environmental forensic techniques, Chlorinated Solvents will be an indispensable reference tool for researchers, regulators and analysts in the field.

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Collective Efficacy Theory and Perceptions of Crime Documenting Neighborhood Context Effects - Joshua R. Battin
ISBN: 9781593327675
Publication Date: 2015-03-01
Battin tests collective efficacy theory by accounting for additional measures of informal social control and social ties. Past social disorganization theory and collective efficacy theory research utilized community members to measure community levels of informal social control and social ties. Battin's work deviates from the previous methodology and incorporates real estate agents as resident proxies to test collective efficacy theory and its relationship with perceptions of crime. The data provide support for collective efficacy theory and the use of resident proxies.

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Confessions of a Prison Chaplain - Brown Mary; Lyon Juliet (Foreword by)
ISBN: 9781909976047
Publication Date: 2014-05-01
Mary Brown's engaging book describes the 'lifeline' work of the prison chaplaincy. Written by a Quaker chaplain, it shows how important to prisoners this contact is and how it blends into the ever-pressing world of prison regimes. Among the topics covered are the 'statutory duties' of chaplains, forgiveness, 'prison chapel goers', Christmas in prison, delivering bad news, dealing with grief or anxiety, learning in prison and restorative justice (which is in line with the teachings of many faiths: as old as religion itself). As the author insists, there is 'that of God' to be found in everyone no matter what their crime. Critical, perceptive and of particular interest to people working in or learning about crime and punishment. Contains insights for people of all faiths (or none). Looks at restorative justice and positive justice. Re-affirms the importance of pastoral support in the reform and rehabilitation of prisoners. As the author describes in Chapter 4, long ago she was shocked to be held for ten days in a prison cell after taking part in a peace demonstration. Much later in life she became a teacher in an open prison then, in more recent times, a Quaker prison chaplain for ten years in a closed men's prison. She is the author of Inside Art (2001)."

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Counter-Terrorism and Hostile Intent: Human Factors Theory and Application - Alex Stedmon (Editor); Glyn Lawson (Editor); Rose Saikayasit
ISBN: 9781409445210
Publication Date: 2015-01-08
This volume presents world-leading ideas and research that explores some of the most prominent topics relevant to detecting terrorism. The book is divided into six key themes: conceptualising terrorism, deception and decision making, social and cultural factors in terrorism, modelling hostile intent, strategies for counter-terrorism, and future directions. Twenty two chapters cover the spectrum of detecting terrorist activities, hostile intent, crowded public spaces and suspicious behaviour. The work draws from high impact research findings and presents case-studies to help communicate concepts. Specific areas of interest include methodological issues in counter-terrorism, counter terrorism policy and its impact on end users, novel research methods and innovative technologies in counter-terrorism. A variety of disciplines are represented by this work, including: ergonomics/human factors, psychology, criminology, cognitive science, sociology, political theory, art/design, engineering and computer science. This book not only expands the knowledge base of the subject area and is therefore of prime relevance to researchers investigating counter-terrorism, but provides a valuable resource to security stakeholders at policy and practitioner levels.

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Counterfeit Crime: Criminal Profits, Terror Dollars, and Nonsense. - R. T. Naylor
ISBN: 9780773543461
Publication Date: 2014-05-20
In Counterfeit Crime, economist, historian, and criminologist R.T. Naylor dissects the costs - economic, social, and political - of the seemingly never-ending wars on the grossly exaggerated menaces of Crime and Terror and how most things politicians do to combat them make matters worse - for the public and the public good. He explains how the post-World War II welfare state, with its commitment to building public infrastructure, maintaining social security, and providing accessible education, gave way to the modern executive state, with its focus on guaranteeing corporate welfare, dropping bombs on countries too weak to fight back, and manipulating the thoughts and actions of populations kept in line by the carrot of glitzy toys and the stick of ever-heavier legal sanctions. He dissects how the canons of free-market fundamentalism, backed by the cannons of state power, paved the road toward a soft form of totalitarianism, which march hand in hand with millennial Christianity and a military-security-industrial complex in search for new - mostly imaginary - enemies. Counterfeit Crime is savage in its critique of the political and judicial status quo and outraged at an economy rife with corruption.

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Criminal Justice at the Crossroads: Transforming Crime and Punishment - William R. Kelly
ISBN: 9780231171373
Publication Date: 2015-05-05
Over the past forty years, the criminal justice system in the United States has engaged in a very expensive policy failure, attempting to punish its way to public safety, with dismal results. So-called "tough on crime" policies have not only failed to effectively reduce crime, recidivism, and victimization but also created an incredibly inefficient system that routinely fails the public, taxpayers, crime victims, criminal offenders, their families, and their communities. Strategies that focus on behavior change are much more productive and cost effective for reducing crime than punishment, and in this book, William R. Kelly discusses the policy, process, and funding innovations and priorities that the United States needs to effectively reduce crime, recidivism, victimization, and cost. He recommends proactive, evidence-based interventions to address criminogenic behavior; collaborative decision making from a variety of professions and disciplines; and a focus on innovative alternatives to incarceration, such as problem-solving courts and probation. Students, professionals, and policy makers alike will find in this comprehensive text a bracing discussion of how our criminal justice system became broken and the best strategies by which to fix it.

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Criminal Justice: A Beginner’s Guide - Bryan Gibson
ISBN: 9781909976009
Publication Date: 2014-03-01
The most straightforward overview available covering the entire criminal justice system. A 'no frills' explanation for beginners. This basic guide sets out the main components of the criminal justice system in an accessible way. Intended as a starting point for readers coming to the subject for the first time it is ideal for new staff, volunteers, first year students and other 'rookies': a short book of facts, explanations and pointers to further study. Chapters: 1. What is Crime? 2. What is Criminal Justice? 3. Who's Who? 4. Modern Developments 5. The Police 6. The Criminal Courts in Action 7. Sentencing (including Probation Work) 8. Prisons and Imprisonment 9. Victims and Restorative Justice 10. Causes of Crime The book also features the Rule of Law, risk assessment, decision-making, forensic investigation, witnesses, surveillance, criminology, crime reduction strategies, border controls, penal reform and some international and historical dimensions. With a Glossary of Words, Phrases and Abbreviations Bryan Gibson is a barrister and editor-in-chief at Waterside Press.

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Crisis and Control: The Militarization of Protest Policing - Lesley J. Wood
ISBN: 9780745333892
Publication Date: 2014-05-20
Crisis and Control explains how neoliberal transformations of political and economic systems are militarising the policing of protest, based on a compelling empirical study of police agencies and practices from 1995 until the present.Lesley J. Wood shows that the increasing role of the security and defense industries, professional police associations, anti-terrorism initiatives and 'best practices' in policing networks have accelerated the use of less lethal weapons, pre-emptive arrests, infiltration and barricading strategies against protesters.The book uses Bourdieu and Boltanski to analyse court transcripts, police reports, policy, training materials and the conference programs of professional police organisations to argue that police agencies are neither omnipotent strategists, nor simple tools of the elite, but institutions struggling to maintain legitimacy, resources and autonomy in a changing field.

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Crisis Intervention in Criminal Justice/Social Service - James E. Hendricks (Editor); Cindy S. Hendricks (Editor)
ISBN: 9780398087838
Publication Date: 2014-04-08
This expanded new edition continues to demonstrate and provide theoretical, analytical, and practical knowledge for first responders. Face-to-face interaction with the client/victim is part of the comprehensive approach advocated by the book, which requires interveners to assess the nature of a crisis and the condition of the victim in order to determine the appropriate course of action. The comprehensive balance of theory and practice presented in this book should enable the intervener in coupling his/her general knowledge of human psychology and emotional crisis with the specific and novel characteristics of various crisis situations. The text represents the work of national scholars who have expertise in criminal justice and social service issues. Their chapters focus on a Historical and Theoretical Overview, Ethics in Crisis Intervention Practice, Intimate Partner Violence, Police Response to Domestic Violence, Children in Crisis, Elder Mistreatment, Suicide, Crisis of Rape and Survivor Intervention, Death Notification and the Theory and Practice of Delivering Bad News, Terrorism and Crisis Intervention, and Mass Casualty Crisis Response and Communication. Helpful appendices in each chapter provide additional internet resources, as well as a complete Model Law Enforcement Code of Ethics and Social Work Code of Ethics. This new edition retains important information while providing current case studies such as the "Miracle on the Hudson River" crash, the mass shootings at Virginia Tech, the Boston Marathon bombing, and the Yarnell Hill fire in Arizona. This exceptional book is designed for firefighters, police officers, community service officers, correctional workers, emergency medical workers, probation/parole officers, protective service workers, psychological counselors, social workers, and victim assistance workers among others.

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Death and Other Penalties: Philosophy in a Time of Mass Incarceration - Geoffrey Adelsberg (Editor); Lisa Guenther; Scott Zeman
ISBN: 9780823265299
Publication Date: 2015-04-01
Mass incarceration is one of the most pressing ethical and political issues of our time. In this volume, philosophers join activists and those incarcerated on death row to grapple with contemporary U.S. punishment practices and draw out critiques around questions of power, identity, justice, and ethical responsibility. This work takes shape against a backdrop of disturbing trends: The United States incarcerates more of its own citizens than any other country in the world. A disproportionate number of these prisoners are people of color, and, today, a black man has a greater chance of going to prison than to college. The United States is the only Western democracy to retain the death penalty, even after decades of scholarship, statistics, and even legal decisions have depicted a deeply flawed system structured by racism and class oppression. Motivated by a conviction that mass incarceration and state execution are among the most important ethical and political problems of our time, the contributors to this volume come together from a diverse range of backgrounds to analyze, critique, and envision alternatives to the injustices of the U.S. prison system, with recourse to deconstruction, phenomenology, critical race theory, feminism, queer theory, and disability studies. They engage with the hyper-incarceration of people of color, the incomplete abolition of slavery, the exploitation of prisoners as workers and as "raw material" for the prison industrial complex, the intensive confinement of prisoners in supermax units, and the complexities of capital punishment in an age of abolition. The resulting collection contributes to a growing intellectual and political resistance to the apparent inevitability of incarceration and state execution as responses to crime and to social inequalities. It addresses both philosophers and activists who seek intellectual resources to contest the injustices of punishment in the United States.

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Department of Homeland Security Management of Ammunition and Firearms - Lewis Calvin
ISBN: 9781633211629
Publication Date: 2014
The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) mission includes law enforcement elements, which require the department, through its components, to manage various types of firearms. DHS's annual ammunition purchases have declined since fiscal year 2009 and are comparable in number to the Department of Justice's (DOJ) ammunition purchases. In fiscal year 2013, DHS purchased 84 million rounds of ammunition, which is less than DHS's ammunition purchases over the past 5 fiscal years. DHS component officials said the decline in ammunition purchases in fiscal year 2013 was primarily a result of budget constraints, which meant reducing the number of training classes, and drawing on their ammunition inventories. This book addresses trends in DHS's ammunition purchases since fiscal year 2008, how DHS's purchases compare with DOJ's, and what factors affect DHS's purchase decisions.

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Developing Restorative Justice Jurisprudence: Rethinking Responses to Criminal Wrongdoing - Tony Foley
ISBN: 9781409465331
Publication Date: 2016-03-16
What are the requirements for a just response to criminal wrongdoing? Drawing on comparative and empirical analysis of existing models of global practice, this book offers an approach aimed at restricting the current limitations of criminal justice process and addressing the current deficiencies. Putting restoration squarely alongside other aims of justice responses, the author argues that only when restorative questions are taken into account can institutional responses be truly said to be just. Using the three primary jurisdictions of Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the book presents the leading examples of restorative justice practices incorporated in mainstream criminal justice systems from around the world. In conclusion, the work provides a fresh insight into how today's criminal law might develop in order to bring restoration directly into the mix for tomorrow. This book will be of interest to undergraduates, postgraduate researchers and lecturers, as well as lawyers who work in the field of criminal law, criminologists, social scientists and philosophers interested in ideas of wrongdoing and criminal justice responses to criminal offending.

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Dirty Assets Emerging Issues in the Regulation of Criminal and Terrorist Assets. - Colin King; Clive Walker
ISBN: 9781409462538
Publication Date: 2014-02-12
Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on the emerging and innovative aspects of attempts to target the accumulated assets of those engaged in criminal and terrorist activity, organized crime and corruption. It examines the 'follow-the-money' approach and explores the nature of criminal, civil and regulatory responses used to attack the financial assets of those engaged in financial crime in order to deter and disrupt future criminal activity as well as terrorism networks. With contributions from leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law, economics, financial management, criminology, sociology and political science, the book explores law and practice in countries with significant problems and experiences, revealing new insights into these dilemmas. It also discusses the impact of the 'follow-the-money' approach on human rights while also assessing effectiveness. The book will appeal to academics and researchers of financial crime, organized crime and terrorism as well as practitioners in the police, prosecution, financial and taxation agencies, policy-makers and lawyers.

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Domestic Violence Case Processing: A Serious Crime or a Waste of Precious Time? ( - Kathleen Erin Currul-Dykeman
ISBN: 9781593327330
Publication Date: 2014-05-01
Laws governing the criminal justice system¿s response to domestic violence have changed through the passage of mandated arrest and prosecution policies. However, while arrest rates for domestic violence increased throughout the 1990s and 2000s, these cases continue to receive lenient treatment by our courts. Most are resolved with dismissals. Currel-Dykeman explores if the court community literature can offer a possible explanation to this problem. She analyzes the local legal culture of two courts, a traditional court and a specialized problem solving court to understand how they discuss and process domestic violence cases differently. Court workgroup members were interviewed and candidly spoke about these cases in a way that helped explain the problem.

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Dying for the Job: Police Work Exposure and Health. - John M. Violanti
ISBN: 9780398087722
Publication Date: 2014-02-18
Since the first and second editions of this book, there have been extensive changes in the private investigative sector. The Internet and technological advances have revolutionized how investigators work cases. Today, private investigators have computer access to diverse sources of information, and communication and photographic technologies have reached levels inconceivable not many years ago. This third edition guides the reader through these new and essential investigative techniques. From the beginning, the authors explain the various needs of the investigator and then show how to apply those abilities. These include problem solving, understanding people, identifying differences, applying laws, understanding and implementing successful interviewing techniques, and identifying exception rules. Also discussed are such areas as report writing, interrogations, locating missing persons, industrial and commercial undercover operations, accident investigations, business and industrial espionage, and legal constraints. Expanded and greatly updated chapters on information technology, modern equipment and methods, optical-related visual aids, VIP protection, and managing a detective agency are provided. In addition, the text is generously illustrated with photos, diagrams, and document examples. This new edition has been prepared with the greatest attention to both textual quality and production details. The book will serve well as both a learning tool and a source of reference. The primary target populations of this book are individuals who desire to become a private investigator, individuals new to the profession, and those who desire to broaden their professional knowledge. Others who will benefit from the information the book provides include insurance professionals, attorneys and paralegals, police officers and other government investigators, and law and criminal justice students..

 

Individual eBooks E-O

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Émile Durkheim and the Collective Consciousness of Society: A Study in Criminology - Kenneth Smith
ISBN: 9781783082278
Publication Date: 2014-08-01
This volume sets out to explore the use of Émile Durkheim's concept of the 'collective consciousness of society', and represents the first ever book-length treatment of this underexplored topic. Operating from both a criminological and sociological perspective, Kenneth Smith argues that Durkheim's original concept must be sensitively revised and suitably updated for its real relevance to come to the fore. Major adjustments to Durkheim's concept of the collective consciousness include Smith's compelling arguments that the model does not apply to everyone equally, and that Durkheim's concept does not in any way rely on what might be called the disciplinary functions of society.

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Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics - Bruce A. Arrigo (Editor)
ISBN: 9781452274119
Publication Date: 2014-08-06
Federal, state, county, and municipal police forces all have their own codes of conduct, yet the ethics of being a police officer remain perplexing and are often difficult to apply in dynamic situations. The police misconduct statistics are staggering and indicate that excessive use of force comprises almost a quarter of misconduct cases, with sexual harassment, fraud/theft, and false arrest being the next most prevalent factors. The ethical issues and dilemmas in criminal justice also reach deep into the legal professions, the structure and administration of justice in society, and the personal characteristics of those in the criminal justice professions. The Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics includes A to Z entries by experts in the field that explore the scope of ethical decision making and behaviors within the spheres of criminal justice systems, including policing, corrections, courts, forensic science, and policy analysis and research. This two-volume set is available in both print and electronic formats. Features: Entries are authored and signed by experts in the field and conclude with references and further readings, as well as cross references to related entries that guide readers to the next steps in their research journeys. A Reader's Guide groups related entries by broad topic areas and themes, making it easy for readers to quickly identify related entries. A Chronology highlights the development of the field and places material into historical context; a Glossary defines key terms from the fields of law and ethics; and a Resource Guide provides lists of classic books, academic journals, websites and associations focused on criminal justice ethics. Reports and statistics from such sources as the FBI, the United Nations, and the International Criminal Court are included in an appendix. In the electronic version, the Reader's Guide, index, and cross references combine to provide effective search-and-browse capabilities. The Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics provides a general, non-technical yet comprehensive resource for students who wish to understand the complexities of criminal justice ethics. Key Themes: History of Criminal Justice Ethics General Criminal Justice Ethics Police Ethics Legal Ethics Correctional Ethics Criminal Justice Cases and Controversies Technology, Crime, and Ethics Ethics and Critical Criminology

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Environmental Forensics: Contaminant Specific Guide (1) - Robert D. Morrison; Brian L. Murphy
ISBN: 9780125077514
Publication Date: 2005-12-16
Environmental forensics is the application of scientific techniques for the purpose of identifying the source and age of a contaminant. Over the past several years, this study has been expanding as a course of study in academia, government and commercial markets. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are among the governmental agencies that utilize the study of environmental forensics to ensure national security and to ensure that companies are complying with standards. Even the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), a group supported by the European Commission and the World Bank, utilizes the study of environmental forensics as it applies to terror threats. This title is a hands-on guide for environmental scientists, engineers, consultants and industrial scientists to identify the origin and age of a contaminant in the environment and the issues involved in the process. An expansion of the authors' first title with Academic Press, Introduction to Environmental Forensics, this is a state-of-the-art reference for those exploring the scientific techniques available. * Up-to-date compendium for referencing forensic techniques unique to particular contaminants. * International scientific unit system * Contributors from around the world providing international examples and case studies.

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Essential Criminology - Mark M. Lanier; Stuart Henry; Desire' J. M. Anastasia
ISBN: 9780813348858
Publication Date: 2014-12-09
In the fourth edition ofEssential Criminology, authors Mark M. Lanier, Stuart Henry, and Desir#65533; J.M. Anastasia build upon this best-selling critical review of criminology, which has become essential reading for students of criminology in the 21st century. Designed as an alternative to overly comprehensive, lengthy, and expensive introductory texts,Essential Criminology is, as its title implies, a concise overview of the field. The book guides students through the various definitions of crime and the different ways crime is measured. It then covers the major theories of crime, from individual-level, classical, and rational choice to biological, psychological, social learning, social control, and interactionist perspectives. In this latest edition, the authors explore the kind of criminology that is needed for the globally interdependent twenty-first century. With cutting-edge updates, illustrative real-world examples, and new study tools for students, this text is a necessity for both undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology.

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Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault - Candace Kruttschnitt (Editor); William D. Kalsbeek (Editor); Carol C. House (Editor); Panel on Measuring Rape and Sexual Assault in Bureau of Justice Statistics Household Surveys; Committee on National Statistics; Division on Behavioral and Social Science
ISBN: 9780309297370
Publication Date: 2014-05-07
The Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) measures the rates at which Americans are victims of crimes, including rape and sexual assault, but there is concern that rape and sexual assault are undercounted on this survey. BJS asked the National Research Council to investigate this issue and recommend best practices for measuring rape and sexual assault on their household surveys. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault concludes that it is likely that the NCVS is undercounting rape and sexual assault. The most accurate counts of rape and sexual assault cannot be achieved without measuring them separately from other victimizations, the report says. It recommends that BJS develop a separate survey for measuring rape and sexual assault. The new survey should more precisely define ambiguous words such as "rape," give more privacy to respondents, and take other steps that would improve the accuracy of responses. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault takes a fresh look at the problem of measuring incidents of rape and sexual assault from the criminal justice perspective. This report examines issues such as the legal definitions in use by the states for these crimes, best methods for representing the definitions in survey instruments so that their meaning is clear to respondents, and best methods for obtaining as complete reporting as possible of these crimes in surveys, including methods whereby respondents may report anonymously. Rape and sexual assault are among the most injurious crimes a person can inflict on another. The effects are devastating, extending beyond the initial victimization to consequences such as unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, sleep and eating disorders, and other emotional and physical problems. Understanding the frequency and context under which rape and sexual assault are committed is vital in directing resources for law enforcement and support for victims. These data can influence public health and mental health policies and help identify interventions that will reduce the risk of future attacks. Sadly, accurate information about the extent of sexual assault and rape is difficult to obtain because most of these crimes go unreported to police. Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault focuses on methodology and vehicles used to measure rape and sexual assaults, reviews potential sources of error within the NCVS survey, and assesses the training and monitoring of interviewers in an effort to improve reporting of these crimes.

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Exploring Green Criminology: Toward a Green Criminological Revolution - Michael J. Lynch; Paul B. Stretesky
ISBN: 9781472418067
Publication Date: 2014-05-08
Few criminologists have drawn attention to the fact that widespread and significant forms of harm such as green or environmental crimes are neglected by criminology. Others have suggested that green crimes present the most important challenge to criminology as a discipline. This book argues that criminology needs to take green harms more seriously and to be revolutionized so that it forms part of the solution to the large environmental problems currently faced across the world. It asks how criminology should be redesigned to consider green/environmental harm as a key area of study in an era where destruction of the earth and the world's ecosystem is a major concern and examines why this has remained unaccomplished so far. The chapters in this book apply an environmental frame of reference underlying a green approach to issues which can be addressed from within criminology and which can encourage criminologists and environmentalists to respond and react differently to environmental crime.

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Forensic Group Psychotherapy: The Portman Clinic Approach. - Andrew Williams (Editor); John Woods (Editor)
ISBN: 9781780490496
Publication Date: 2014-03-01
Forensic Group Psychotherapy: The Portman Clinic Approach stands as a comprehensive account of theoretical and practical approaches to the group treatment of patients who present with problematic sexual behaviour, criminality, and violence. The first section of the book focusses upon key aspects of group analytic theory as applied to clinical work with forensic patients and describes how to provide a setting in which treatment can proceed. This is followed by a series of chapters with a clinical emphasis, providing a rich and evocative account of the challenges of working with forensic patients in groups. The guiding principle is the need to understand and work with the victim within the perpetrator. This book is a must for any clinician working with forensic patients in groups. Though based on the work of an outpatient clinic, there are ideas and techniques that can be applied to many other settings, including prison, probation, and inpatient.

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Forensic Radio Survey Techniques for Cell Site Analysis - Joseph Hoy
ISBN: 9781118925737
Publication Date: 2015-02-23
This book is intended to be used as both a text book and as an aide memoire handbook by forensic radio survey engineers, particularly those working for official police agencies. The book provides a simple but detailed overview of the operation of cellular networks (GSM, UMTS and LTE, US CDMAOne/CDMA2000, amongst others). In addition, the author also provides an overview of the technical theories that underpin cellular radio systems ? basic radio theory and a simple explanation of the mathematical concepts that underlie measurements scales such as dB and dBm. The main part of the book, however, focuses on radio surveys, the various types of survey, the techniques employed for each survey and the considerations and potential problems that can be encountered when surveying different types of network. The final section deals with processing and interpreting the results of radio surveys and examines the information that can be gained from them.

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Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections: Identifying High-priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector - Brian A. Jackson; Joe Russo; John S. Hollywood; Brian G. Chow; Richard Silberglitt; Dulani Woods; Mikhail Zaydman; George B. Drake; John S. Shaffer
ISBN: 9780833088567
Publication Date: 2015-02-06
Given the challenges posed to the U.S. corrections sector, such as tightened budgets and increasingly complex populations under its charge, it is valuable to identify opportunities where changes in tools, practices, or approaches could improve performance. In this report, RAND researchers, with the help of a practitioner Corrections Advisory Panel, seek to map out an innovation agenda for the sector.

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Gender-Responsive Risk Assessment in Corrections - Valerie Bell
ISBN: 9781593327637
Publication Date: 2014-10-01
Risk assessment in corrections allows practitioners to not only predict the likelihood of success for an offender and to identify areas to target for reduced risk. Such targets are argued to be different for men and women (Bloom, Owen &
Covington, 2003). Bell examines the predictive validity of the Women's Risk/Needs Assessment on a sample of women and a sample of men. Results indicate that there are differences in the prevalence, co-occurrence, and predictive validity of risk/needs and strengths
for men and women. Results support prior studies regarding gender-neutral risk assessment for male offenders. Additionally, her research demonstrates the importance of gender-responsive issues in the risk prediction of women in community corrections.

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Handbook on Effective Prosecution Responses to Violence Against Women and Girls - United Nations (Contribution by)
ISBN: 9789211303315
Publication Date: 2015-02-27
Prosecutors play a critical role in the criminal justice response to violence against women and girls. Prosecuting gender based violent crime can be challenging. Drawing upon the updated Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (General Assembly resolution 65/228, annex), UNODC and UN Women have drafted the Handbook on Effective Prosecution Responses to Violence against Women and Girls. Recognizing that prosecutors work in different legal systems, it is meant to be a helpful resource for individual prosecutors and prosecution services.

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Healing Corrections : The Future of Imprisonment - Chris Innes
ISBN: 9781555538460
Publication Date: 2015-06-02
Unlike critics who see the organizational cultures of prisons, jails, and community correction agencies as a problem that needs to be fixed with simple-sounding reforms, Chris Innes argues instead that these types of organizational cultures are adaptive and a source of strength that can be used to genuinely transform them. He shows how operational priorities, including safety and security, become much more difficult to sustain when organizational cultures become fragmented into disconnected subcultures. To transform an organizational culture, he argues, this fragmentation must be “healed” by changing the patterns of communication that make up the day-to-day reality of an organization’s culture. Innes advocates an innovative approach based on the skills and practices of dialogue. He describes in detail how Dialogic Practice can be used to transform organizational cultures through an implementation process that begins with the leadership and cascades through the organization as an expanding circle, as staff are trained and become engaged in the process. Innes draws upon the research and policy literature in several fields, the contemporary national debate on the role of the justice system in American society, and his own experience during the last forty years in correctional research and policy, and in working directly with correctional agencies. This innovative approach to transforming organizational cultures will interest correctional decision makers; administrators, researchers, and graduate students in criminal justice; advocates; and others who manage mission-driven human services organizations. Hardcover is un-jacketed.

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Human Trafficking: United Kingdom Responses and Strategy. - Mildred Sapienti
ISBN: 9781631176753
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
Human trafficking is a subject of growing concern, both internationally and domestically. There are some difficulties of definition, as various different terms are used inconsistently, and it is also very difficult to get a clear idea of the numbers of people involved in human trafficking. Despite this, there have been various international agreements, studies and campaigns to address the problem. Various legislative and other policies have been put in place, including new trafficking offences and the creation of a UK Human Trafficking Centre. This book discusses the ways in which the United Kingdom hopes to respond to human trafficking. This includes the draft of the UK's Modern Slavery Bill, and other strategies they hope to use toward ending human trafficking.

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I Am Not Your Victim: Anatomy of Domestic Violen - Beth M. Sipe; Evelyn J. Hall
ISBN: 9781452235301
Publication Date: 2013-07-22
I am Not Your Victim vividly details the evolution of domestic violence during the 16-year marriage of author Beth Sipe. Encouraged to publish her story by her therapist and co-author, Evelyn J. Hall, beth Sipe relates the background and events leading up to and immediately following her tragic act of desperation that ended the life of her sadistic perpetrator. Beth's subsequent mishandling by the police, the military, a mental health professional, and the welfare system illustrates how women like Beth face further revictimization and neglect by the very systems that should provide support and assistance. Insightful commentaries written by experts in the field follow beth's story and deepen our understanding of the causes and process of spousal abuse, why battered women stay, and the dynamic consequences of domestic violence. This updated edition includes new commentaries and an epilogue that tracks what happened to Beth in the years following the publication of her book.

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In Doubt - Dan Simon
ISBN: 9780674046153
Publication Date: 2012-06-20
The criminal justice process is unavoidably human. Police detectives, witnesses, suspects, and victims shape the course of investigations, while prosecutors, defense attorneys, jurors, and judges affect the outcome of adjudication. In this sweeping review of psychological research, Dan Simon shows how flawed investigations can produce erroneous evidence and why well-meaning juries send innocent people to prison and set the guilty free. The investigatorâe(tm)s task is genuinely difficult and prone to bias. This often leads investigators to draw faulty conclusions, assess suspectsâe(tm) truthfulness incorrectly, and conduct coercive interrogations that can lead to false confessions. Eyewitnessesâe(tm) identification of perpetrators and detailed recollections of criminal events rely on cognitive processes that are often mistaken and can easily be skewed by the investigative procedures used. In the courtroom, jurors and judges are ill-equipped to assess the accuracy of testimony, especially in the face of the heavy-handed rhetoric and strong emotions that crimes arouse. Simon offers an array of feasible ways to improve the accuracy of criminal investigations and trials. While the limitations of human cognition will always be an obstacle, these reforms can enhance the criminal justice systemâe(tm)s ability to decide correctly whom to release and whom to punish.

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Inmate Behavior Management: Guidance and Tools. - Dale M. Hayes
ISBN: 9781633212572
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
Experience has shown that if a jail does not meet the basic human needs of inmates, the inmates will find a way to satisfy their needs in ways that may be unfavorable to the orderly operation of the jail. Understanding what motivates human behavior provides jail administrators with a very useful tool for managing inmates since it helps explain both good inmate behavior and bad. This book not only provides guidance to jail practitioners as they implement this element, but it also provides self-assessment checklists to determine how well the jail is doing in the delivery of basic needs and suggestions for area of improvement. Violence, vandalism, and unsanitary conditions prevail in many jails na#65533;tionwide, frustrating jail practitioners who must ensure the safety and security of inmates, staff, and the public. These conditions often result from insufficient attention to inmate behavior management. Thankfully, over the past 25 years, important lessons about managing and controlling inmate behavior have emerged. One lesson is that a jail cannot control inmate be#65533;havior by focusing primarily on physical containment. A jail must actively manage inmate behavior to achieve a safe, clean, and secure environment, and this book provides tools for managing inmate behavior in this manner.

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Intelligence and Private Investigation Developing Sophisticated Methods for Conducting Inquiries. - Hank Prunckun (Editor)
ISBN: 9780398088880
Publication Date: 2013-07-11
While many books have been written about private investigation, this text is different in that it does not deal with the subject from traditional perspectives. It examines how private investigation has grown, particularly since 9-11, into an exacting and sophisticated occupation. The book looks at the key issues in what it describes as private intelligence; that is, intelligence activities practiced by operatives other than law enforcement, national security, or the military. Eleven world experts contribute chapters addressing key practice issues concerning the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary in the new realm of private intelligence. The initial three chapters provide a report on present-day private intelligence and offer an overview of the specifics of intelligence issues that follow. Eleven subsequent chapters take the reader progressively through various intelligence-related subjects. Major topics presented include: skills for intelligence-led private investigators, open source intelligence, target profiling, fraud intelligence, political intelligence, anti-terrorist and anti-gang intelligence, illicit organizations and financial intelligence, counterintelligence, clandestine communication methods, preparing a prosecution brief, legal issues for intelligence-led private investigators, and ethical issues for intelligence-led private investigators. Additionally, the text contains several features that will appeal to both students and instructors. These include a set of key terms and phrases, a number of study questions, and learning activities in each chapter. Written in a clear and concise style, the text provides a foundation of practical and useful information. It will be a most important and unique resource for undergraduate students in private investigation courses as well as intelligence practitioners and general readers interested in self-development study.

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Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods - Gennaro F. Vito; Julie C. Kunselman; Richard Tewksbury
ISBN: 9780398087982
Publication Date: 2014-07-07
This third edition is designed as an introduction to research methods in criminal justice techniques. The detailed information that is generated by research is a management tool that has become a significant part of criminal justice operations. The text discusses the purposes, process, and uses of research that focus on identifying what information is already known about a particular topic or question. Ethical issues in criminal justice research are reviewed, as is investigating the validity and reliability of crime data sources. Also offered is an introduction to research design--the plan or blueprint for a complete research project. The principles of sampling are thoroughly discussed as is survey research, a common form of gathering information in the criminal justice setting. A review of the concept of scaling and some common methods of scale construction are introduced. Additional major topics include qualitative interviews and observational studies in qualitative research, as well as a wide variety of research techniques that comprise evaluation research. The definitions and examples provided in the book will help students and practitioners to both comprehend research articles and reports and to conduct their own research. Each of the authors brings specific areas of expertise to the text, and they are familiar with the research process and have worked together on several published studies. The text is designed primarily for persons with little or no research background and provides real-world examples and clear definitions of terms and concepts.

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Investigating Information-Based Crimes A Guide for Investigators on Crimes Against Person Related to the Theft or Manipulation of Information Assets - Ronald L. Mendell
ISBN: 9780398088712
Publication Date: 2013-02-28
This book is about investigating information-based crimes in the twenty-first century. Information-based crimes against persons involve the theft, compromise, misuse, or manipulation of personal data or knowledge assets. Such crimes include identity theft, social engineering, the theft of personal information storage areas or repositories, and the theft of physical information assets such as papers, manuscripts, or rare books. Other assets that can become targets include financial documents and transactions, e-mails, diaries, calendars, spreadsheets, and other personal information, such as medical records. Investigators will learn from this text how to evaluate the victimology in a case. How did the victim’s information fall prey to attack? Why was this victim chosen? In each type of attack, suggestions are made for completing a vulnerability analysis on the victim's assets to determine the methods used in the suspect’s attack. Once an M.O. (method of operation) becomes established for an UNSUB (unknown suspect), the text presents ideas on narrowing the universe of suspects and in linking them to the offense. The book also offers investigative checklists for probing into information-based crimes against persons. In addition, the narrative strives to take a psychological methodology in investigating these cases. By reading the strategies provided in this book, private investigators and law enforcement will be armed for dealing with today’s “foxes” thatthreaten our interconnected, global information community.

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Investigative Ethics: Ethics for Police Detectives and Criminal Investigators (1) - Toby Miller; Seumas Miller; Ian A. Gordon
ISBN: 9781405157735
Publication Date: 2014-06-03
Investigative Ethics: Ethics for Police Detectives and Criminal Investigators presents applied philosophical analyses of the ethical issues that arise for police detectives and other investigators in contemporary society. Explores ethical issues relating to investigative independence, rights of victims and suspects, use of informants, entrapment, privacy and surveillance, undercover operations, deception, and suspect interviewing Represents the first monograph providing a detailed consideration of ethical issues in police investigations Features authorship by an applied philosopher specializing in police ethics, and a former UK senior police officer Combined authorship ensures the text is anchored in actual police practice as well as providing high quality ethical analysis

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Jurisprudence of International Criminal Justice - Farhad Malekian
ISBN: 9781443853606
Publication Date: 2014-01-15
Introduction written by Professor Benjamin B FerenczThis challenging volume examines the jurisprudence of international criminal justice from various points of view. The philosophy of justice may vary from time to time and from nation to nation, depending on prevailing attitudes towards the substantive rules which deal, in one way or another, with cultural norms. In the national and international area, the principles of criminal justice have a key role in examining the scope of the most serious violations of international criminal law. It is on the basis of appropriate judgment that these principles may be accumulated and achieved for the future conduct of man. This volume, therefore, examines the principles and dimensions of the constitutions of various international criminal tribunals/courts, with particular focus on the Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). As such, the volume offers a comprehensive evaluation of the rule of law and criminal justice and their legal tasks within the complementarity system of international criminal jurisprudence.The volume emphasises the prosecution and punishment of all those who may successfully escape from the proceedings of national and international criminal courts because of their juridical, political, religious, economic or military power. It demands the implementation of international law of jus cogens. The provisions of the Statute should not be deduced in contradiction to the norms from which no derogation is possible, such as prohibitions governing crimes against humanity, torture, apartheid, rape, war crimes, genocide and aggression. If the value of the task of the Court is to be realised by the majority of states in the international community, the cycle of impunity has to be abolished in the case of all states, including the five permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations.

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Law Enforcement Body Armor: Background and Federal Support for Use. - Alicia E. Malloy
ISBN: 9781611229882
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
Firearms are one of the leading causes of deaths for law enforcement officers feloniously killed in the line of duty. Since FY1999, Congress has provided funding to state and local law enforcement agencies to help them purchase armour vests for their officers. The Matching Grant Program for Law Enforcement Armor Vests (BVP program) provides grants to state, local, and tribal governments to purchase armour vests for use by law enforcement officers and court officers. This book provides an overview of the BPV program. It also provides a FAQ section for the BVP program; and a status of DOJ's efforts to address GAO recommendations.

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Leadership Resilience: Lessons for Leaders from the Policing Frontline - Jonathan Smith (Editor); Ginger Charles
ISBN: 9781409440680
Publication Date: 2016-04-21
Leadership is demanding and challenging. How do leaders cope? How do they remain fit and strong, and thrive? The authors of Leadership Resilience, a business school academic and a police officer, suggest that many challenges faced by leaders are similar to the challenges experienced by police officers. The isolation; the pressure not to show personal emotions; the expectation that they will deal effectively with confused, frustrated and angry people; and that they can deal with delivering bad news; all contribute to the pressures bearing on leaders and police officers everywhere. The authors argue that these challenges are more pronounced in policing and so more readily identifiable than in other leadership situations. They explore challenges experienced by police officers, look at how they cope with them, and draw lessons for those undertaking leadership roles more generally. Leadership Resilience provides accounts from police officers, in their own words, of difficult experiences they encounter. They describe their feelings about what was important and how they coped with it. Each account is followed by an analysis highlighting what is discussed, and not discussed, in the accounts and identifying lessons that can be drawn by leaders in other situations. All is presented so that it is relevant to different cultures demanding different styles of leadership. Analysis of the engaging experiences featured will help leaders struggling with the gap between leadership education and capability and the demands made of them to survive and thrive, while maintaining their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health.

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Learning and Performance in Corrections: A Framework and Annotated Bibliography for Workplace Learning. - Marco Delgado
ISBN: 9781631175336
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
Correctional agencies around the country are challenged by an increasingly transient workforce, exponential growth in technology, and continued budget cuts. This book focuses on learning and performance challenges in the 21st century including the role of technology in learning programs and the incorporation of evidence-based practices into program design and delivery. The book offers an extensive review of learning research in the areas of theory, learners, learning organisations, instructional design, program design, delivery methods and modalities, learning transfer, and program assessment.

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Lethal Violence and Religion: Institutional and Denominational Effects on Homicide and Suicides in U.S. Counties. - Bryan K. Robinson
ISBN: 9781593327699
Publication Date: 2015-03-01
Robinson uses sociological principles to examine the impact of community religiosity on county lethal violence rates. Testing both an integrated model and disaggregated models of lethal violence he finds evidence that religious homogeneity is a better predictor of lethal violence than either the rates of religious participation or the prevalence of religious institutions within a county. Moreover, he finds evidence that the presence of different conservative Christian denominations impact community violence in different ways. Specifically, the prevalence of Pentecostal, fundamentalist and evangelical Protestants in counties have different effects on suicide and homicide rates and should be examined independently.

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License Plate Readers for Law Enforcement: Opportunities and Obstacles - Keith Gierlack; Shara Williams; Tom LaTourrette; James M. Anderson
ISBN: 9780833087102
Publication Date: 2014-07-24
Because license plate reader (LPR) technology is relatively new in the United States, opportunities and obstacles in its use in law enforcement are still under exploration. To examine issues about this technology, RAND conducted interviews with law enforcement personnel, police officers, and others responsible for procuring, maintaining, and operating the systems.

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Locked down, Locked Out: Why Prison Doesn't Work and How We Can Do Better (1) - Maya Schenwar
ISBN: 9781626562691
Publication Date: 2014-11-10
In Locked Down, Locked Out, journalist Maya Schenwar looks at how prison tears families and communities apart, creating a rippling effect that touches every corner of our society. Through the stories of prisoners and their families, as well as her own family's experience of her sister's incarceration, Schenwar shows how the institution that locks up 2.3 million Americans-and decimates poor communities of color-is shredding the ties that, if nurtured, could foster real collective safety.The destruction does not end upon exiting the prison walls: the 95 percent of prisoners who are released emerge with even fewer economic opportunities and fewer human connections on the outside than before. Locked Down, Locked Out shows how incarceration takes away the very things that might enable people to build better lives.Looking toward a future beyond imprisonment, Schenwar profiles community-based initiatives that foster antiracist, anticlassist, prohumanity approaches to justice. These programs successfully deal with problems-both individual harm and larger social wrongs-through connection rather than isolation, moving toward a safer future for all of us.

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Moral Communities and Jailhouse Religion : Religiosity and Prison Misconduct - Benjamin Meade
ISBN: 9781593327583
Publication Date: 2014-08-01
Meade examines the relationship between religiosity and inmate misconduct. The most important aspect of his work is an attempt to resolve unanswered questions in the existing research about the religiosity-inmate misconduct relationship using a national sample of inmates and rigorous statistical techniques. His basic thesis is that the mixed findings across studies may be attributed to issues concerning selection bias and/or contextual differences in religiosity across facilities. The findings from the studies indicate that selection bias could result in an underestimation of the magnitude of the religiosity-misconduct relationship, but the results fail to support the impact of contextual religiosity effects on misconduct.

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Mothering Justice: Working with Mothers in Criminal and Social Justice Settings. - Lucy Baldwin (Editor); Vicky Pryce (Foreword by)
ISBN: 9781910979020
Publication Date: 2015-10-20
Written by experts with first-hand experience, Mothering Justice is the first whole book to take motherhood as a focus for criminal and social justice interventions. Covering the spectrum of interventions it also makes a powerful case that in particular the imprisonment of mothers and its effect on their children is unnecessary, unjust, devastating and wasteful. 'To afford justice to these women, we must "do" justice to motherhood.' For practitioners by practitioners this highly informed collection will be of great value to course providers across a range of disciplines and groups dealing with women's issues. Approximately 12,000 women every year experience 'maternal incarceration', whilst many more are engaged in community-based supervision, support or interventions from public, private and voluntary services. Working with mothers who understandably already might feel challenged and vulnerable can be as demanding and difficult as it is rewarding and inspiring. The book aims to make this task more effective, purposeful and rewarding. Drawing on many years of practitioner experience of both the editor and chapter authors, who include a barrister, prosecutor, police officer, prison officer, probation officer, drugs worker, social worker and psychotherapist, the book aims to facilitate and develop understanding in relation to effective practice when engaging professionally with mothers, their lives, challenges, emotions and (ordinarily) their pre-occupations with their families. A workbook for course providers and students across a range of disciplines. 'This book will not be the first occasion when concerns about the impact of imprisonment not only on mothers but their children have been publicised. But, unlike the others, the fact that it will contain observations from so many different practitioners, each presenting their own perspective, should be taken very seriously by politicians, to do what needs to be done to prevent avoidable damage on future generations': Lord David Ramsbotham. 'I absolutely recognise the value and importance of this book which will add to and develop understanding in relation to working with mothers in criminal justice': Vicky Pryce (from the Foreword). 'In telling these stories in such an accessible way there is hope that practitioners will understand that this goes much deeper than a troubled mother's life, and that this will lead to more being done to intervene appropriately at earlier times for both the mother and the children, and that this will change the course of life for women and their children': Jackie Russell, Women's Breakout. Editor/Author Lucy Baldwin is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at De Montfort University, Leicester, having joined academia in 2004 after a long career in social and criminal justice. She has practised in a variety of fields including social work, probation and prisons and has experience across a wide range of settings from service user, victim and offender-focussed perspectives when she has been 'touched by the heart and soul of women, especially the mothers with whom I have worked and the challenges they face.' A mother of three and stepmother of one she is also a novice grandmother. ** See http: //www.watersidepress.co.uk/acatalog/Mothering-Justice-9781909976238.html for full list of contributors. Author of the Foreword Vicky Pryce is a mother who went to prison following one of the most high profile criminal trials of the recent past for taking the speeding points of her Cabinet member husband. An economist, she was joint head of the UK's Government Economic Service. She is the author of Prisonomics (Biteback, 2013), an analysis of the economic and human costs of imprisoning women, the royalties from which help former women prisoners to find work via the charity Working Chance.

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Music in American Crime Prevention and Punishment - Lily E. Hirsch
ISBN: 9780472118540
Publication Date: 2012-11-15
Although the use of music for extramusical purposes has been a part of American culture for some time, the phenomenon remained largely unknown to the general public until revelations became widespread of startling military practices during the second Iraq War. In Music in American Crime Prevention and Punishment, Lily E. Hirsch explores the related terrain at the intersection of music and law, demonstrating the ways in which music has become a tool of law enforcement and justice through: police and community leaders’ use of classical music in crime deterrence and punishment; the use of rap lyrics as prosecutorial evidence; allegations of music as incitement to violence; and the role of music in U.S. prisons and in detention centers in Guantanamo, Iraq, and Afghanistan. In the course of her study, Hirsch asks several questions: How does the law treat music? When and why does music participate in the law? How does music influence the legal process? How does the legal process influence music? And how do these appropriations affect the Romantic ideals underlying our view of music?

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O'Hara's Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation - DeVere/D Woods
ISBN: 9780398088453
Publication Date: 2013-02-14
Charles and Gregory O’Hara’s Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation has served as the “Bible” of criminal investigation for many years. The author of this new edition has prepared this text for a new generation of criminal investigators in such a way that they will learn what is meant by a complete investigation and acquaint themselves with the proofs of the most important crimes. In addition, they will become familiar with the employment of technical methods and services that are available. The tools of the investigator are referred to as the three “I’s,” namely, “Information,” “Interrogation,” and “Instru-mentation.” In view of this factor, the technological advancements in forensic science, practices of criminalistics, computerization, electronic databases, and the Internet are presented, including the time honored methods of collecting information that are still effective and utilized. Among the changes in this new edition include crime analysis, criminal profiling, theories of investigation, ethics of investigation, the “CSI” effect, cold case investigation, digital photography, computer crime and digital crime scenes, and the Internet as an investigative tool. The book presents an overview of criminal investigation, the investigative notebook and report, crime scene procedures and physical evidence, obtaining information through surveillance and informants, selected property offenses, violent crimes, drugs and gangs, and the investigator in court. The “Additional Reading” sections, at the end of each chapter and the glossary of useful criminal investigation terms have been updated. The presentation of material in this book is directed to the beginning student of investigation, but experienced investigators and supervisors will find this text an excellent resource.

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Offender Reentry: Background, Federal Programs, and an Annotated Bibliography. - Micah J. Hiram
ISBN: 9781631174964
Publication Date: 2014-01-01
The prison population in the United States has been growing steadily for over 30 years. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that since 2000 an average of 680,000 inmates have been released annually from state and federal prisons and almost 5 million ex-offenders are under some form of community-based supervision. Offender re-entry can include all the activities and programming conducted to prepare ex-convicts to return safely to the community and to live as law-abiding citizens. The federal government's involvement in offender re-entry programs typically occurs through grant funding, which is available through a wide array of federal programs at the Departments of Justice, Labor, Education, and Health and Human Services. However, only a handful of grant programs in the federal government are designed explicitly for offender re-entry purposes. This book discusses the correctional statistics, reintegration of released offenders into communities, and recidivism.

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Online Gambling and Crime Causes, Controls and Controversies. - James Banks
ISBN: 9781472414496
Publication Date: 2014-07-21
Offering the first empirically driven assessment of the development, marketisation, regulation and use of online gambling organisations and their products, this book explores the relationship between online gambling and crime. It draws upon quantitative and qualitative data, including textual and visual analyses of e-gambling advertising and the records of player-protection and standards organisations, together with a virtual ethnography of online gambling subcultures, to examine the ways in which gambling and crime have been approached in practice by gamers, regulatory agencies and online gambling organisations. Building upon contemporary criminological theory, it develops an understanding of online gambling as an arena in which risks and rewards are carefully constructed and through which players navigate, employing their own agency to engage with the very real possibility of victimisation. With attention to the manner in which online gambling can be a source of criminal activity, not only on the part of players, but also criminal entrepreneurs and legitimate gambling businesses, Online Gambling and Crime discusses developments in criminal law and regulatory frameworks, evaluating past and present policy on online gambling. A rich examination of the prevalence, incidence and experience of a range of criminal activities linked to gambling on the Internet, this book will appeal to scholars and policy makers in the fields of sociology and criminology, law, the study of culture and subculture, risk, health studies and social policy.

 

Individual eBooks P-Y

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Past Crimes - Julie Rosemary Wileman
ISBN: 9781473823198
Publication Date: 2015-07-19
Today, police forces all over the world use archaeological techniques to help them solve crimes - and archaeologists are using the same methods to identify and investigate crimes in the past. This book introduces some of those techniques, and explains how they have been used not only to solve modern crimes, but also to investigate past wrongdoing. Archaeological and historical evidence of crimes from mankind's earliest days is presented, as well as evidence of how criminals were judged and punished. Each society has had a different approach to law and order, and these approaches are discussed here with examples ranging from Ancient Egypt to Victorian England - police forces, courts, prisons and executions have all left their traces in the physical and written records. The development of forensic approaches to crime is also discussed as ways to collect and analyze evidence were invented by pioneer criminologists. From the murder of a Neanderthal man to bank fraud in the 19th century, via ancient laws about religion and morality and the changes in social conditions and attitudes, a wide range of cases are included - some terrible crimes, some amusing anecdotes and some forms of ancient lawbreaking that remain very familiar.

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Penal Culture and Hyperincarceration: : The Revival of the Prison (Advances in Criminology) - Chris Cunneen; Eileen Baldry; David Brown; Mark Brown; Melanie Schwartz; Alex Steel
ISBN: 9781409447290
Publication Date: 2013-10-11
What are the various forces influencing the role of the prison in late modern societies? What changes have there been in penality and use of the prison over the past 40 years that have led to the re-valorization of the prison? Using penal culture as a conceptual and theoretical vehicle, and Australia as a case study, this book analyses international developments in penality and imprisonment. Authored by some of Australia's leading penal theorists, the book examines the historical and contemporary influences on the use of the prison, with analyses of colonialism, post colonialism, race, and what they term the 'penal/colonial complex,' in the construction of imprisonment rates and on the development of the phenomenon of hyperincarceration. The authors develop penal culture as an explanatory framework for continuity, change and difference in prisons and the nature of contested penal expansionism. The influence of transformative concepts such as 'risk management', 'the therapeutic prison', and 'preventative detention' are explored as aspects of penal culture. Processes of normalization, transmission and reproduction of penal culture are seen throughout the social realm. Comparative, contemporary and historical in its approach, the book provides a new analysis of penality in the 21st century.

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Penal Sanctioning in the United States: Explaining Cross-State Differences (1) - Frederique A. Laubepin
ISBN: 9781593327682
Publication Date: 2015-02-01
Laubepin investigates differences in the scope of penal sanctioning in the American states over a thirty-year period. Her analyses replicate and expand prior research examining the determinants of incarceration rates, and explore whether this theoretical framework can be usefully applied to back-end sentencing (parole revocation). She finds that states have responded to similar policy problems with solutions shaped by local social, political, economic and cultural conditions. Not only are these dynamics historically contingent, but they also play out differently at the front and back ends of the sentencing system. Unlike prior research, this study provides weak support for the influence of political factors, but points to the importance of practices of civic engagement instead, suggesting that penal sanctioning is driven by "top down" policies as well as "bottom up" democratic processes.

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Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries - Ana Muñiz
ISBN: 9780813569765
Publication Date: 2015-08-03
Based on five years of ethnography, archival research, census data analysis, and interviews, Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries reveals how the LAPD, city prosecutors, and business owners struggled to control who should be considered "dangerous" and how they should be policed in Los Angeles. Sociologist Ana Mu#65533;iz shows how these influential groups used policies and everyday procedures to criminalize behaviors commonly associated with blacks and Latinos and to promote an exceedingly aggressive form of policing.   Mu#65533;iz illuminates the degree to which the definitions of "gangs" and "deviants" are politically constructed labels born of public policy and court decisions, offering an innovative look at the process of criminalization and underscoring the ways in which a politically powerful coalition can define deviant behavior. As she does so, Mu#65533;iz also highlights the various grassroots challenges to such policies and the efforts to call attention to their racist effects. Mu#65533;iz describes the fight over two very different methods of policing: community policing (in which the police and the community work together) and the "broken windows" or "zero tolerance" approach (which aggressively polices minor infractions--such as loitering--to deter more serious crime). Police, Power, and the Production of Racial Boundaries also explores the history of the area to explain how Cadillac-Corning became viewed by outsiders as a "violent neighborhood" and how the city's first gang injunction--a restraining order aimed at alleged gang members--solidified this negative image. As a result, Mu#65533;iz shows, Cadillac-Corning and other sections became a test site for repressive practices that eventually spread to the rest of the city.  

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Policing Across the World : Issues for the Twenty-First Century - R. I. Mawby (Editor)
ISBN: 9781857284881
Publication Date: 1999-02-01
This wide-ranging text provides an overview of policing across different societies, and considers the issues facing the US and British police in a wider international context. The book is designed as a coherent introduction to the police.

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Positive Criminology: Reflections on Care, Belonging and Security. - Brenda Oude Breuil (Editor); Marc Schuilenburg (Editor); Ronald Van Steden (Editor)
ISBN: 9789462364448
Publication Date: 2014-08-26
Safety and security are often seen in light of crime, disorder, and fear. This fuels a political and social climate obsessed with a negative logic of 'fighting' criminals, 'controlling' populations, and 'excluding' unwanted others. Other, more positive or constitutive, discourses and practices about safety and security have fallen out of fashion. But, what alternatives to contemporary processes of securitization and criminalization can be imagined when starting from a positive critique of security? Which theoretical and empirical resources support and inspire more positive notions of security? This multidisciplinary book brings together a team of renowned scholars to stress that security also includes notions of care, trust, and belonging. By taking the concept of security beyond traditional criminal law, the book's contributors present cutting edge theoretical and empirical analyses on the importance of human connectedness, community building, and feelings of solidarity as a way to resist hegemonic and negative meanings of security. The book will appeal to researchers in the fields of criminology, political science, sociology, philosophy, and security studies. Contents include: A Critique of Security - Towards a Positive Turn in Criminology * Positive Security - A Theoretical Framework * Thinking about Sustainable Security - Metaphors, Paradoxes, and Ironies * Growing Sanguine about the Weeds - Gardening and Security Revisited * Power and Servility - An Experiment in the Ethics of Security and Counter-Security * Security in Support of Safety and Community - Thoughts from New York * Your Friendly Gasoline Station - On Habitual Space * Not 'Fortress Los Angeles' - Design and Management of Privately Owned Public Spaces in New York City * Fluid Security? Home, Care, and Belonging in Prostitution Migration * Afterthoughts - Security, Anti-Security, Positive Security. [Subject: Criminology, Sociology, Security Studies]

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Prison and Social Death: Critical Issues in Crime and Society - Joshua M. Price
ISBN: 9780813565583
Publication Date: 2015-07-01
The United States imprisons more of its citizens than any other nation in the world. To be sentenced to prison is to face systematic violence, humiliation, and, perhaps worst of all, separation from family and community. It is, to borrow Orlando Patterson's term for the utter isolation of slavery, to suffer "social death." In Prison and Social Death, Joshua Price exposes the unexamined cost that prisoners pay while incarcerated and after release, drawing upon hundreds of often harrowing interviews conducted with people in prison, parolees, and their families.   Price argues that the prison separates prisoners from desperately needed communities of support from parents, spouses, and children. Moreover, this isolation of people in prison renders them highly vulnerable to other forms of violence, including sexual violence. Price stresses that the violence they face goes beyond physical abuse by prison guards and it involves institutionalized forms of mistreatment, ranging from abysmally poor health care to routine practices that are arguably abusive, such as pat-downs, cavity searches, and the shackling of pregnant women. And social death does not end with prison. The condition is permanent, following people after they are released from prison. Finding housing, employment, receiving social welfare benefits, and regaining voting rights are all hindered by various legal and other hurdles. The mechanisms of social death, Price shows, are also informal and cultural. Ex-prisoners face numerous forms of distrust and are permanently stigmatized by other citizens around them.   A compelling blend of solidarity, civil rights activism, and social research, Prison and Social Death offers a unique look at the American prison and the excessive and unnecessary damage it inflicts on prisoners and parolees.

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Race, Place, and Suburban Policing : Too Close for Comfort - Andrea S. Boyles
ISBN: 9780520282384
Publication Date: 2015-08-01
While considerable attention has been given to encounters between black citizens and police in urban communities, there have been limited analyses of such encounters in suburban settings. Race, Place, and Suburban Policing tells the full story of social injustice, racialized policing, nationally profiled shootings, and the ambiguousness of black life in a suburban context. Through compelling interviews, participant observation, and field notes from a marginalized black enclave located in a predominately white suburb, Andrea S. Boyles examines a fraught police-citizen interface, where blacks are segregated and yet forced to negotiate overlapping spaces with their more affluent white counterparts.

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Racialized Correctional Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice - Claire Spivakovsky
ISBN: 9781409437512
Publication Date: 2013-04-10
Racialized Correctional Governance examines problems in the relationship between criminology and racialized issues. It questions current models for discussing issues of race in criminal justice systems and asks why a comprehensive theory of race and criminal justice has yet to develop in the discipline. It takes into account the full nature of problems facing racialized peoples in criminal justice systems, the developments and tensions in criminological theory and practice, as well as the scope of racialized criminal justice issues and where they occur. Suggesting that current explanations for the over-representation of racialized peoples in the criminal justice system are inadequate, the book explores the mutual constructions of race and criminal justice. It examines the shortcomings of current discourse, giving an account of how race, criminal justice and criminology are interrelated. Aiming to provide criminology with tools to engage with issues of race and criminal justice, the book develops and applies a set of rules to a series of case studies and proposes ideas for transforming institutional practice.

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Restorative Justice - Theo Gavriedlides
ISBN: 9780754670322
Publication Date: 2016
Providing a critical perspective on the aspirations of advocates of restorative justice and the direction in which restorative justice is developing, this book offers an empirically researched contribution to the significant gaps that exist between the ideals of proponents of restorative justice and the objectives being achieved in practice. The work also suggests possible ways forward for the restorative justice movement and the development of practices with a coherent set of restorative justice ideals.

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Returning Home: Intimate Partner Violence and Reentry. - Matasha L. Harris
ISBN: 9781593327712
Publication Date: 2015-03-01
Formerly incarcerated African Americans face numerous challenges when returning home from prison. A major challenge that many formerly incarcerated offenders encounter is negotiating relationships, especially with intimate partners following periods of incarceration. For many African American men and women during reentry, intimate partner violence frequently becomes a problem. Through intensive interviews, Harris documents twenty-nine formerly incarcerated African American men's and women's experiences with intimate partner violence. This book highlights principles and elements of restorative justice as a useful framework to address the issue of intimate partner violence among this group.

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Serial Killers: The Psychosocial Development of Humanity's Worst Offenders - William M. Harmening
ISBN: 9780398087883
Publication Date: 2014-09-15
Whether it be Jack the Ripper in nineteenth-century England or Ted Bundy in 1970s America, the public has always been fascinated by the criminal offender type known as the serial killer. Professionals continue to speculate and develop new theories about their identity decades after their crimes ended. But what is it that causes such evilness in individuals that causes them to take an innocent life, not once but multiples times, and for no apparent reason beyond their own perverse psychological gratification? This fascinating book explores this question by looking at the psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior, including serial murder. The role of such internal processes as attachment, moral development, and identity formation in the development of a person's predisposition to various forms of deviance, including physical and sexual aggression, is reviewed. This information is then applied to actual serial killers, including David Berkowitz (The Son of Sam), Charles Manson, Eric Rudolph (God's Crusader), Ted Bundy (The Face of Evil), Edmund Kemper (The Co-ed Killer), and the Zodiac Killer, in an effort to construct a psychosocial profile of each and to attempt to pinpoint the various developmental factors that contributed to their eventual criminality. Finally, early intervention strategies are explored that can potentially redirect a child's developmental trajectory away from crime and deviance, and toward a more adaptive and socially acceptable behavioral repertoire. This book will be an insightful resource to all law enforcement professionals, policymakers, police academics, psychologists, psychiatrists, and many others in the helping professions as well.

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Sex Offender Laws Second Edition : Failed Policies, New Directions. - Richard Gordon Wright
ISBN: 9780826196712
Publication Date: 2014-07-01
Praise for the First Edition: Sex Offender Laws . . . "is a good source for a] balanced, objective, and thorough critique of our current sex offender policies as well as a source for accurate information about a very heterogeneous population. . . . The message that sexual abuse is often a multifaceted and complex issue and that policy based on quick fixes or knee jerk reactions does not often work will be informative and enlightening to many readers." Sex Roles " T]his fine book by Richard Wright and his distinguished collaborators provides the evidence that wise policy makers would want to consider. It covers every major field of research concerning sex offenders and sexual offenses and provides evidence of bad practices and policies. Intellectually honest politicians should read this book." " Michael Tonry, LLB, Professor of Law and Public Policy, University of Minnesota Law School (from the Foreword) The most comprehensive book available about sex offender policies and their efficacy, "Sex Offender Laws" has been widely embraced as a text for courses in criminal justice, social work, and psychology. Now updated to keep pace with rapidly changing laws and policies, this second edition features an increased emphasis on policy and program alternatives. It incorporates new content on high-profile issues affecting adolescent sex offenders, critical analyses of the results of recent studies on sex offender policies, effective approaches in preventing recidivism, and cutting-edge research in the fields of criminal justice, law, forensic psychology, and social work. The second edition continues to document and assess the full gamut of laws designed to respond to and prevent sexual violence. The majority of sex offender policies often developed as "quick fixes" in response to high-profile cases are not based on empirical evidence, nor have they demonstrated any significant reduction in offender recidivism. This new edition showcases alternative models that offer innovative and victim-centered approaches to combating sexual violence. Expert authors explore critical, controversial topics such as sexting, Internet sexual solicitation, the death penalty, mandatory sentencing, statutory rape, age of consent laws, and community responses. The book examines the political "untouchability" of sex offender laws and their adverse effects; despite their popularity, sex offender laws have largely failed to keep people safe and actually promote an inaccurate sense of vulnerability. The text also analyzes the role of the media and presents a new chapter on Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs. Expert contributors include Karen Terry, author of "Sexual Offenses and Offenders," and others who bring a wealth of insight to the field of sex offense. New to the Second Edition: Emphasizes policy and program alternatives to currently ineffective policies Provides new content on the criminalization of adolescent sexuality Analyzes the role of the media in sex offense and sex offense policies Critically discusses state implementation of the 2006 Adam Walsh Act Introduces new policy alternatives including environmental criminology and its use toward sexual violence prevention and the increasing use of civil litigation in sexual assault cases Examines the political "untouchability" of sex offender laws and their adverse affects and unintended consequences "

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Structure Matters: Predicting Juvenile Justice System Behavior (1) - LaNina N. Cooke
ISBN: 9781593328047
Publication Date: 2015-10-13
LC Subject Heading: Juvenile corrections -- Florida; Juvenile justice, Administration of -- Florida.

Cooke examines the value of ecological structures in predicting juvenile justice system behavior, specifically during risk assessment, prosecution, and sanction determination. Her analysis considers religious establishments, public housing sites, and retail liquor stores as the ecological indicators and views them as stigmatizing and determinant of system behavior Through aggregating ecological, legal, and demographic data by zip code, the examination determined (a) associations between social ecology and juvenile justice decision points and (b) the degree to which juvenile probation officers and judges were more stringent and judgmental toward delinquents from neighborhoods with greater concentrations of the analyzed ecological structures.

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The Eternal Criminal Record - James B. Jacobs
ISBN: 9780674368262
Publication Date: 2015-02-09
For over sixty million Americans, possessing a criminal record overshadows everything else about their public identity. A rap sheet, or even a court appearance or background report that reveals a run-in with the law, can have fateful consequences for a personâe(tm)s interactions with just about everyone else. The Eternal Criminal Record makes transparent a pervasive system of police databases and identity screening that has become a routine feature of American life. The United States is unique in making criminal information easy to obtain by employers, landlords, neighbors, even cyberstalkers. Its nationally integrated rap-sheet system is second to none as an effective law enforcement tool, but it has also facilitated the transfer of ever more sensitive information into the public domain. While there are good reasons for a personâe(tm)s criminal past to be public knowledge, records of arrests that fail to result in convictions are of questionable benefit. Simply by placing someone under arrest, a police officer has the power to tag a person with a legal history that effectively incriminates him or her for life. In James Jacobsâe(tm)s view, law-abiding citizens have a right to know when individuals in their community or workplace represent a potential threat. But convicted persons have rights, too. Jacobs closely examines the problems created by erroneous record keeping, critiques the way the records of individuals who go years without a new conviction are expunged, and proposes strategies for eliminating discrimination based on criminal history, such as certifying the records of those who have demonstrated their rehabilitation.

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The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences - Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration; Committee on Law and Justice; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; Steve Redburn (Editor); Jeremy Travis (Editor); Bruce Western (Editor)
ISBN: 9780309298018
Publication Date: 2014-05-24
After decades of stability from the 1920s to the early 1970s, the rate of imprisonment in the United States more than quadrupled during the last four decades. The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. rate of incarceration, with nearly 1 out of every 100 adults in prison or jail, is 5 to 10 times higher than the rates in Western Europe and other democracies. The U.S. prison population is largely drawn from the most disadvantaged part of the nation's population: mostly men under age 40, disproportionately minority, and poorly educated. Prisoners often carry additional deficits of drug and alcohol addictions, mental and physical illnesses, and lack of work preparation or experience. The growth of incarceration in the United States during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for U.S. society. "The Growth of Incarceration in the United States" examines research and analysis of the dramatic rise of incarceration rates and its affects. This study makes the case that the United States has gone far past the point where the numbers of people in prison can be justified by social benefits and has reached a level where these high rates of incarceration themselves constitute a source of injustice and social harm. "The Growth of Incarceration in the United States" recommends changes in sentencing policy, prison policy, and social policy to reduce the nation's reliance on incarceration. The report also identifies important research questions that must be answered to provide a firmer basis for policy. The study assesses the evidence and its implications for public policy to inform an extensive and thoughtful public debate about and reconsideration of policies.

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The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine - Mehmet Yasar Iscan; Maryna Steyn
ISBN: 9780398088781
Publication Date: 2013-09-24
This classic in forensic anthropology has been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded for the new Third Edition. The result presents the state of the medicolegal art of investigating human skeletal remains. The third edition follows more than 25 years after the second edition. During this time, considerable changes occurred in the field and Forensic Anthropology became a distinct specialty in its own right. Included in the book are detailed discussions on crime scene investigation, including excavation techniques, time interval since death, human or animal remains, mass graves, and preparation of remains. Existing chapters, all dramatically revised, bring readers in line with the current concepts of skeletal age; determination of sex; assessment of ancestry; calculation of stature; factors of individualization; superimposition and restoration of physiognomy. There is also a section on dental analysis examining such topics as dental anatomy, nomenclature, estimation of age in subadults and adults, determination of sex and ancestry, and pathological conditions. New additions are chapters on skeletal pathology and trauma assessment. A new chapter has also been added on "Forensic Anthropology of the Living." Although all of the sections of the book have been updated significantly, the authors have retained some sense of history to recognize the many pioneers that have shaped the discipline. The text will assist forensic anthropologists and forensic pathologists who have to analyze skeletons found in forensic contexts. This book has a global perspective in order to make it usable to practitioners across the world. Where possible, short case studies have been added to illustrate the diverse aspects of the work.

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The Marion Experiment : Long-Term Solitary Confinement and the Supermax Movement - Stephen C. Richards (Editor); Greg Newbold (Foreword by)
ISBN: 9780809333769
Publication Date: 2015-01-07
Taking readers into the darkness of solitary confinement, this searing collection of convict experiences, academic research, and policy recommendations shines a light on the proliferation of supermax (super-maximum-security) prisons and the detrimental effects of long-term high-security confinement on prisoners and their families. Stephen C. Richards, an ex-convict who served time in nine federal prisons before earning his PhD in criminology, argues the supermax prison era began in 1983 at USP Marion in southern Illinois, where the first "control units" were built by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The Marion Experiment, written from a convict criminology perspective, offers an introduction to long-term solitary confinement and supermax prisons, followed by a series of first-person accounts by prisoners--some of whom are scholars--previously or currently incarcerated in high-security facilities, including some of the roughest prisons in the western world. Scholars also address the widespread "Marionization" of solitary confinement; its impact on female, adolescent, and mentally ill prisoners and families; and international perspectives on imprisonment. As a bold step toward rethinking supermax prisons, Richards presents the most comprehensive view of the topic to date to raise awareness of the negative aspects of long-term solitary confinement and the need to reevaluate how prisoners are housed and treated.

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The Pains of Doing Criminological Research - Kristel Beyens (Editor); Jenneke Christiaens (Editor); Bart Claes (Editor); Steven De Ridder (Editor); Hanne Tournel (Editor)
ISBN: 9789057182631
Publication Date: 2013-06-01
By explicitly focusing on the lived experiences of criminology researchers and giving voice to their difficulties, struggles, frustrations, and the challenges they meet during their research, this book places the researcher in the center of the attention, providing a unique perspective to the classical handbook in research methods. These tales of the field witnesses relate the hidden difficulties and pitfalls of doing research and discuss often-neglected questions. What does it mean to do research in a hypermasculine environment as a prison? What are the challenges to getting access to a police organization or to private intelligence organizations and private security companies? How does a researcher cope with her or his own emotions during fieldwork? How does an ex-convict experience the process of becoming a researcher? What are the hidden or unexpected problems of publishing? What are the challenges of doing comparative research? These are only a few questions that are dealt with in this book, which is written by researchers for researchers and students of criminology.

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The Poetics of Crime: Understanding and Researching Crime and Deviance Through Creative Sources - Michael Hviid Jacobsen
ISBN: 9781409469957
Publication Date: 2014-10-17
The Poetics of Crime provides an invitation to reconsider and reimagine how criminological knowledge may be creatively and poetically constructed, obtained, corroborated and applied. Departing from the conventional understanding of criminology as a discipline concerned with refined statistical analyses, survey methods and quantitative measurements, this book shows that criminology can - and indeed should - move beyond such confines to seek sources of insight, information and knowledge in the unexplored corners of poetically and creatively inspired approaches and methodologies. With chapters illustrating the ways in which criminologists and other researchers or practitioners working on crime-related questions can find inspiration in a variety of unconventional materials, writing styles and analytical strategies, The Poetics of Crime offers studies of police photography, classic and contemporary literature, silver screen movies, performative dance enactments and media images. As such, this volume opens up the field of criminological research to alternative and novel sources of knowledge about crime, its perpetrators and victims, authorities, motives and justice. It will therefore appeal not only to sociologists, social theorists and criminologists, but to scholars across disciplines with interests in crime, deviance and innovative approaches to social research.

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The Policing of Transnational Protest: Advances in Criminology - Donatella Della Porta; Abby Peterson; Herbert Reiter
ISBN: 9780754626763
Publication Date: 2006-12-28
Having long been a neglected issue, the policing of protest began to attract considerable attention in the 1990s, climaxing in the events in Seattle of 1999. These protests and the changing political climate since September 11, 2001 mean that a new cycle of protest is challenging the concept of law and order and civil liberties. This book examines how new policing styles are developing using case studies from North America and Europe. The volume brings together researchers from a number of disciplines âe" sociology, criminology, political science and mass communication âe" who focus on new forms of political protest, policing and public order.

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The Realities of International Criminal Justice - Dawn L. Rothe (Editor); James D. Meernik (Editor); Thordis Ingadóttir (Editor)
ISBN: 9789004251106
Publication Date: 2013-07-11
In "The Realities of the International Criminal Justice System," Rothe, Meernik, and Ingadottir bring together expert scholars from the disciplines of law, criminology, sociology and political science to critically analyse the current state of and impact of the international criminal justice system. Through a systematic evaluation of the existing courts and their effects in the real world on states, victims, and offenders, and their impact on the development of the law related to their jurisdictions, both on the international and national level, the authors hope that lessons can be drawn for a more promising future delivery of criminal justice by international and domestic judicial bodies."

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The School-To-Prison Pipeline: A Comprehensive Assessment (1) - Christopher A. Mallett
ISBN: 9780826194589
Publication Date: 2015-08-01
The expanded use of zero-tolerance policies and security measures in schools has exponentially increased arrests and referrals to the juvenile courts often for typical adolescent developmental behaviors and low-level misdemeanors. This is the first truly comprehensive assessment of the "school-to-prison pipeline" a term that refers to the increased risk for certain individuals, disproportionately from minority and impoverished communities, to end up ensnared in the criminal justice system because of excessively punitive disciplinary policies in schools. Written by one of the foremost experts on this topic, the book examines school disciplinary policies and juvenile justice policies that contribute to the pipeline, describes its impact on targeted both intentionally and unintentionally children and adolescents, and recommends a more supportive and rehabilitative model that challenges the criminalization of education and punitive juvenile justice. The book outlines effective policies, interventions, and preventative efforts that can be used to improve school climates and safety. The author includes specific recommendations for delinquency, detention, and incarceration prevention. The text incorporates a vast store of empirical knowledge from all relevant fields of study and includes research citations for more in-depth study. Case examples illuminate the plight of adolescents enmeshed in these systems along with effective interventions. The book is a vital resource for undergraduate and graduate students of social work and criminal justice as well as for juvenile court and school personnel and policymakers. KEY FEATURES: Provides a comprehensive assessment of the school-to-prison pipeline Recommends a supportive and rehabilitative model that decriminalizes education and challenges punitive juvenile justice Written by one of the foremost national experts on this topic Identifies the major risk factors for involvement in the pipeline "

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Tomorrow's Criminals: The Development of Child Delinquency and Effective Interventions - Rolf Loeber (Editor); N. Wim Slot; Peter Van Der Laan; Machteld Hoeve
ISBN: 9780754671510
Publication Date: 2008-12-28
It has been acknowledged for some years that the early onset of delinquency can predict a long and serious criminal career. Most resources are targeted at the teenage years but this book argues convincingly that more research and interventions should be aimed at child delinquents aged 12 and under. Tomorrow's Criminals addresses key problems in criminological research and makes studies from the Netherlands more accessible to a wider audience. It provides information and analyses on risk factors and reviews screening tools and risk-focused prevention methods. The contributions increase visibility and accessibility of European policy and practice in the explanation and prevention of child delinquency.

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U. S. Latinos and Criminal Injustice - Lupe S. Salinas
ISBN: 9781611861761
Publication Date: 2015-07-01
Latinos in the United States encompass a broad range of racial, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical identities. Originating from the Caribbean, Spain, Central and South America, and Mexico, they have unique justice concerns. The ethnic group includes U.S. citizens, authorized resident aliens, and undocumented aliens, a group that has been a constant partner in the Latino legal landscape for over a century. This book addresses the development and rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States and how race-based discrimination, hate crimes, and other prejudicial attitudes, some of which have been codified via public policy, have grown in response. Salinas explores the degrading practice of racial profiling, an approach used by both federal and state law enforcement agents; the abuse in immigration enforcement; and the use of deadly force against immigrants. The author also discusses the barriers Latinos encounter as they wend their way through the court system. While all minorities face the barrier of racially based jury strikes, bilingual Latinos deal with additional concerns, since limited-English-proficient defendants depend on interpreters to understand the trial process. As a nation rich in ethnic and racial backgrounds, the United States, Salinas argues, should better strive to serve its principles of justice.

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W. E. B. Du Bois on Crime and Justice: Laying the Foundations of Sociological Criminology - Shaun L. Gabbidon
ISBN: 9780754649564
Publication Date: 2007-03-28
This is the first book to discern the contribution of Du Bois' work to criminology and criminal justice through a comprehensive review of his papers, articles and books. Beginning with reflections from his childhood, the author traces Du Bois' ideas on crime and justice throughout his life. This includes a unique analysis of Du Bois' experience as an object of the criminal justice system, a review of his FBI file, his 1951 trial and his pioneering social scientific research program at Atlanta University. The book illustrates the depth of Du Bois' interest in the field and reveals how he was a pioneer in key areas of criminology and criminal justice. The book contains five appendices which include four original papers written by Du Bois as well as maps from The Philadelphia Negro.

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Women, Incarceration, and Human Rights Violations: Feminist Criminology and Corrections - Alana Van Gundy; Amy Baumann-Grau
ISBN: 9781409457695
Publication Date: 2013-11-08
A rich examination of the neglect and abuses occurring to women in correctional facilities, Women, Incarceration, and Human Rights Violations draws upon a wealth of case studies from around the world and class action lawsuits to shed light on 'covert' abuse such as sexual or physical abuse, as well as 'overt' abuse such as the denial of medical treatment. Adopting a feminist framework, this book offers a comparative evaluation of abuse in domestic and international correctional facilities, demonstrating the extent to which women are at high risk of being sexually abused and re-victimized in the correctional system, where pregnancy and other specific medical and health issues are consistently ignored. Calling attention to the necessity of addressing the gender-specific needs of women who are incarcerated, Women, Incarceration, and Human Rights Violations offers a review of current policy, laws, and regulation bearing on the issue, while providing concrete recommendations and policy changes to address abuses. As such it will appeal to sociologists, criminologists, and policymakers concerned with questions of gender, penology, and institutional abuse.

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Youth Involvement in Crime The Importance of Locus of Control and Collective Efficacy (1) - Eileen Ahlin
ISBN: 9781593325268
Publication Date: 2013-02-01
Ahlin uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the independent relationships between locus of control and collective efficacy and youth involvement in crime. She also explores the moderating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between locus of control and crime. Findings suggest that increased locus of control inhibits criminal activity among youth, while collective efficacy does not influence individual-level criminal behavior. However, collective efficacy completely moderates the relationship between locus of control and crime; nullifying the influence of locus of control on crime. Her results suggest that while locus of control influences criminal behavior, neighborhood influences are not essential to understanding individual level involvement in crime.

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