- Bakke v. Board of Regents of California
From The American Economy: A Historical Encyclopedia
Controversial 5 to 4 decision handed down June 28, 1978, in which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional rigid racial quotas, or “set-asides,” for admission to a university medical school.
- Brown v. Board of Education: Topic Page
A legal case in which on 17 May 1954 the US Supreme Court ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools violated the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.
- Dred Scott decision: Topic Page
US Supreme Court decision of 1857 which denied ‘blacks’ (African Americans) US citizenship and made slavery legal in all US territories.
- Dreyfus affair: Topic Page
The controversy that occurred with the treason conviction (1894) of Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859–1935), a French general staff officer.
- Marbury v. Madison
From The Reader's Companion to American History
In Marbury v. Madison (1803) the Supreme Court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution.
- McCulloch v. Maryland: Topic Page
Case decided in 1819 by the U.S. Supreme Court, dealing specifically with the constitutionality of a Congress-chartered corporation, and more generally with the dispersion of power between state and federal governments.
- Miranda v. Arizona: Topic Page
U.S. Supreme Court case (1966) in the area of due process of law (see Fourteenth Amendment). The decision reversed an Arizona court's conviction of Ernesto Miranda on kidnapping and rape charges.
- Nixon v. United States
From Great American Court Cases
By the spring of 1974, the government investigation into the Watergate break-in and the subsequent coverup was moving full-steam ahead. Despite President Richard M. Nixon’s repeated denials, it was becoming increasingly clear to Congress and the public that senior Nixon administration officials, and probably Nixon himself, had been actively involved in the coverup.
- Nuremberg trials: Topic Page
After World War II, the trials of the 24 chief Nazi war criminals November 1945-October 1946 by an international military tribunal consisting of four judges and four prosecutors: one of each from the USA, UK, USSR, and France.
- O. J. Simpson Trial
From Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices
The 1995 murder trial of former football star, actor, and television commentator O.J. Simpson revealed an abiding racial polarization in American society and brought fundamental issues of race and crime to the forefront of national discourse.
- Plessy v. Ferguson
From Encyclopedia of American Studies
When Homer Plessy boarded an intrastate Louisiana train on June 7, 1892, his purpose was to challenge Section 2, Act III, passed by the Louisiana state legislature on July 10, 1890, which prescribed “equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored races” on its intrastate railroads.
- Reno v. ACLU
From Great American Court Cases
In this, the first ruling by the Supreme Court on legal issues raised by the Internet, the Court determined that online communication differed significantly from broadcasting and should therefore be subject to less regulation. It found that two regulations intended to protect minors from pornography were unconstitutionally vague.
- Roe v. Wade: Topic Page
Case decided in 1973 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Along with Doe v. Bolton, this decision legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.
- Sacco-Vanzetti Case
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
On Apr. 15, 1920, a paymaster for a shoe company in South Braintree, Mass., and his guard were shot and killed by two men who escaped with over $15,000.
- Salem Witch Trials: Topic Page
Series of trials that took place near Salem, part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1692, in which more than 150 men and women were accused and 19 found guilty of practising witchcraft, then a crime punishable by death.
- Scopes Trial
From Science in the Early Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia
William Jennings Bryan (1860–1925) believed in 1925 that evolution and Christianity were dueling to the death. In the most famous contest between science and religion in the United States, the former presidential candidate represented fundamentalist Christians.
- Scottsboro case: Topic Page
In 1931 nine black youths were indicted at Scottsboro, Ala., on charges of having raped two white women in a freight car passing through Alabama. In a series of trials the youths were found guilty and sentenced to death or to prison terms of 75 to 99 years.
- Tinker v. Des Moines
From Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History
Noted 1969 U.S. Supreme Court case involving three high school students from Des Moines, Iowa, whose symbolic protest against the Vietnam War resulted in expanded First Amendment protections for expressive speech in public education.