- Europe: Topic Page
Earth's second smallest continent, comprising the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass. It is separated from Asia by the Urals (E), Caspian Sea and the Caucasus (SE), Black Sea and Dardanelles (S), and from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea. Land Europe is dominated by the Alpine mountain chain, the main links of which are the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathian Mountains, Balkan Mountains, and the Caucasus. Between the Scandinavian peninsula and the Alps is the great European plain, which extends from the Atlantic coast in France to the Urals. Much of the plain is fertile farmland. Major islands include the British Isles, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Iceland.
- European Union: Topic Page
The European Union (EU) is a multinational democratic entity that consists of 27 Member States. There have been six periods of enlargement in the growth of the EU, and the largest occurred on May 1, 2004, when 10 states joined the existing 15. The most recent expansion was on January 1, 2007, when Bulgaria and Romania were accessioned. The current Member States of the EU are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
- Albania: Topic Page
(ălbāʹnyə), Albanian Shqipëria or Shqipnija, officially Republic of Albania, republic (2005 est. pop. 3,563,000), 11,101 sq mi (28,752 sq km), SE Europe. Albania is on the Adriatic Sea coast of the Balkan Peninsula, between Montenegro on the northwest, Kosovo on the northeast, Macedonia on the east, and Greece on the southeast. Tiranë is the capital and largest city.
- Andorra: Topic Page
Landlocked country in the east Pyrenees, bounded north by France and south by Spain.
- Austria: Topic Page
Republic of Austria, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 8,185,000), 32,374 sq mi (83,849 sq km), central Europe. It is bounded by Slovenia and Italy (S), Switzerland and Liechtenstein (W), Germany and the Czech Republic (N), and Slovakia and Hungary (E). Its capital and by far its largest city is Vienna.
- Belarus: Topic Page
Country in east-central Europe, bounded south by Ukraine, east by Russia, west by Poland, and north by Latvia and Lithuania.
- Belgium: Topic Page
Country in Western Europe, bounded to the north by the Netherlands, to the northwest by the North Sea, to the south and west by France, and to the east by Luxembourg and Germany.
Country in central Europe, bounded north and west by Croatia, and east by Serbia and Montenegro.
- Bulgaria: Topic Page
(bŭlgârʹēə), Bulgarian Balgarija, officially Republic of Bulgaria, republic (2011 pop. 7,364,570), 42,823 sq mi (110,912 sq km), SE Europe, on the E Balkan Peninsula. It is bounded by the Black Sea on the east, by Romania on the north, by Serbia and Macedonia on the west, by Greece on the south, and by European Turkey on the southeast. Sofia is the capital. Other important cities are Varna and Burgas (the main Black Sea ports of Bulgaria), Plovdiv and Ruse.
- Croatia: Topic Page
(rōāʹshə), Croatian Hrvatska, officially Republic of Croatia, republic (2011 pop. 4,284,889), 21,824 sq mi (56,524 sq km), in the northwest corner of the Balkan Peninsula. Roughly crescent-shaped, Croatia is bounded by Slovenia in the northwest, by Hungary in the northeast, by Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (enwrapped in the north and south arms of Croatia, giving it its distintive shape), and Montenegro in the east, and by the Adriatic Sea in the west. Zagreb is the capital. There are important seaports at Rijeka, Split, Pula, Zadar, Šibenik, and Dubrovnik.
- Cyprus: Topic Page
Island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the south coast of Turkey and west coast of Syria.
- Czech Republic: Topic Page
Landlocked country in east-central Europe, bounded north by Poland, northwest and west by Germany, south by Austria, and east by the Slovak Republic.
- Denmark: Topic Page
Peninsula and islands in northern Europe, bounded to the north by the Skagerrak arm of the North Sea, east by the Kattegat strait, south by Germany, and west by the North Sea.
- Estonia: Topic Page
Country in northern Europe, bounded east by Russia, south by Latvia, and north and west by the Baltic Sea.
- Finland: Topic Page
Country in Scandinavia, bounded to the north by Norway, east by Russia, south and west by the Baltic Sea, and northwest by Sweden.
- France: Topic Page
France is bordered by the English Channel (N), the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay (W), Spain and Andorra (SW), the Mediterranean Sea (S), Switzerland and Italy (SE), and Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium (NE).
- Germany: Topic Page
Located in the center of Europe, it borders the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France on the west; Switzerland and Austria on the south; the Czech Republic and Poland on the east; Denmark on the north; and the Baltic Sea on the northeast.
- Greece: Topic Page
The Hellenic Republic, the official name of Greece, is a rugged country lying at the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. Olympus (Ólimbos), at 2,917m [9,570ft], is the highest peak. Nearly a fifth of the land area is made up of around 2,000 islands, mainly in the Aegean Sea, east of the main peninsula, but also in the Ionian Sea to the west. Only 154 are inhabited. The island of Crete is structurally related to the main Alpine fold mountain system to which the mainland Pindos Range belongs.
- Greenland: Topic Page
Green. Kalaallit Nunaat, Dan. Grønland, the largest island in the world (2005 est. pop. 56,000), 836,109 sq mi (2,166,086 sq km), self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark, lying largely within the Arctic Circle. It is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean in the north; the Greenland Sea in the east; the Denmark Strait in the southeast, which separates it from Iceland; the Atlantic Ocean in the south; and Davis Strait and Baffin Bay in the west, which separate it from Baffin Island, Canada. The capital is Nuuk (formerly Godthåb).
- Hungary: Topic Page
Country in central Europe, bounded north by the Slovak Republic, northeast by Ukraine, east by Romania, south by Serbia and Croatia, and west by Austria and Slovenia.
- Encyclopedia of the European Union
Provides in-depth, authoritative discussions of the key concepts, developments, institutions, policies, negotitations, treaties, national interests, personalities, etc., related to European integration.