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Europe Print Page


  • Europe: Topic Page
    Earth's second smallest continent, comprising the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass. It is separated from Asia by the Urals (E), Caspian Sea and the Caucasus (SE), Black Sea and Dardanelles (S), and from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea. Land Europe is dominated by the Alpine mountain chain, the main links of which are the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathian Mountains, Balkan Mountains, and the Caucasus. Between the Scandinavian peninsula and the Alps is the great European plain, which extends from the Atlantic coast in France to the Urals. Much of the plain is fertile farmland. Major islands include the British Isles, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Iceland.
  • European Union: Topic Page
    The European Union (EU) is a multinational democratic entity that consists of 27 Member States. There have been six periods of enlargement in the growth of the EU, and the largest occurred on May 1, 2004, when 10 states joined the existing 15. The most recent expansion was on January 1, 2007, when Bulgaria and Romania were accessioned. The current Member States of the EU are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
  • Albania: Topic Page
    (ălbāʹnyə), Albanian Shqipëria or Shqipnija, officially Republic of Albania, republic (2005 est. pop. 3,563,000), 11,101 sq mi (28,752 sq km), SE Europe. Albania is on the Adriatic Sea coast of the Balkan Peninsula, between Montenegro on the northwest, Kosovo on the northeast, Macedonia on the east, and Greece on the southeast. Tiranë is the capital and largest city.
  • Andorra: Topic Page
    Landlocked country in the east Pyrenees, bounded north by France and south by Spain.
  • Austria: Topic Page
    Republic of Austria, federal republic (2005 est. pop. 8,185,000), 32,374 sq mi (83,849 sq km), central Europe. It is bounded by Slovenia and Italy (S), Switzerland and Liechtenstein (W), Germany and the Czech Republic (N), and Slovakia and Hungary (E). Its capital and by far its largest city is Vienna.
  • Belarus: Topic Page
    Country in east-central Europe, bounded south by Ukraine, east by Russia, west by Poland, and north by Latvia and Lithuania.
  • Belgium: Topic Page
    Country in Western Europe, bounded to the north by the Netherlands, to the northwest by the North Sea, to the south and west by France, and to the east by Luxembourg and Germany.
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina
    Country in central Europe, bounded north and west by Croatia, and east by Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Bulgaria: Topic Page
    (bŭlgârʹēə), Bulgarian Balgarija, officially Republic of Bulgaria, republic (2011 pop. 7,364,570), 42,823 sq mi (110,912 sq km), SE Europe, on the E Balkan Peninsula. It is bounded by the Black Sea on the east, by Romania on the north, by Serbia and Macedonia on the west, by Greece on the south, and by European Turkey on the southeast. Sofia is the capital. Other important cities are Varna and Burgas (the main Black Sea ports of Bulgaria), Plovdiv and Ruse.
  • Croatia: Topic Page
    (rōāʹshə), Croatian Hrvatska, officially Republic of Croatia, republic (2011 pop. 4,284,889), 21,824 sq mi (56,524 sq km), in the northwest corner of the Balkan Peninsula. Roughly crescent-shaped, Croatia is bounded by Slovenia in the northwest, by Hungary in the northeast, by Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (enwrapped in the north and south arms of Croatia, giving it its distintive shape), and Montenegro in the east, and by the Adriatic Sea in the west. Zagreb is the capital. There are important seaports at Rijeka, Split, Pula, Zadar, Šibenik, and Dubrovnik.
  • Cyprus: Topic Page
    Island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the south coast of Turkey and west coast of Syria.
  • Czech Republic: Topic Page
    Landlocked country in east-central Europe, bounded north by Poland, northwest and west by Germany, south by Austria, and east by the Slovak Republic.
  • Denmark: Topic Page
    Peninsula and islands in northern Europe, bounded to the north by the Skagerrak arm of the North Sea, east by the Kattegat strait, south by Germany, and west by the North Sea.
  • Estonia: Topic Page
    Country in northern Europe, bounded east by Russia, south by Latvia, and north and west by the Baltic Sea.
  • Finland: Topic Page
    Country in Scandinavia, bounded to the north by Norway, east by Russia, south and west by the Baltic Sea, and northwest by Sweden.
  • France: Topic Page
    France is bordered by the English Channel (N), the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay (W), Spain and Andorra (SW), the Mediterranean Sea (S), Switzerland and Italy (SE), and Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium (NE).
  • Germany: Topic Page
    Located in the center of Europe, it borders the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France on the west; Switzerland and Austria on the south; the Czech Republic and Poland on the east; Denmark on the north; and the Baltic Sea on the northeast.
  • Greece: Topic Page
    The Hellenic Republic, the official name of Greece, is a rugged country lying at the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. Olympus (Ólimbos), at 2,917m [9,570ft], is the highest peak. Nearly a fifth of the land area is made up of around 2,000 islands, mainly in the Aegean Sea, east of the main peninsula, but also in the Ionian Sea to the west. Only 154 are inhabited. The island of Crete is structurally related to the main Alpine fold mountain system to which the mainland Pindos Range belongs.
  • Greenland: Topic Page
    Green. Kalaallit Nunaat, Dan. Grønland, the largest island in the world (2005 est. pop. 56,000), 836,109 sq mi (2,166,086 sq km), self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark, lying largely within the Arctic Circle. It is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean in the north; the Greenland Sea in the east; the Denmark Strait in the southeast, which separates it from Iceland; the Atlantic Ocean in the south; and Davis Strait and Baffin Bay in the west, which separate it from Baffin Island, Canada. The capital is Nuuk (formerly Godthåb).
  • Hungary: Topic Page
    Country in central Europe, bounded north by the Slovak Republic, northeast by Ukraine, east by Romania, south by Serbia and Croatia, and west by Austria and Slovenia.
  • Encyclopedia of the European Union
    Provides in-depth, authoritative discussions of the key concepts, developments, institutions, policies, negotitations, treaties, national interests, personalities, etc., related to European integration.


  • Italy: Topic Page
    Country in southern Europe, bounded north by Switzerland and Austria, east by Slovenia, Croatia, and the Adriatic Sea, south by the Ionian and Mediterranean seas, and west by the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian seas and France. It includes the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Sicily.
  • Florence (Italy): Topic Page
    Capital of Tuscany, northern Italy, on the River Arno. It has printing, engineering, and optical industries; many crafts, including leather, gold and silver work, and embroidery; and its art and architecture attract large numbers of tourists. Notable medieval and Renaissance citizens included the writers Dante and Boccaccio, and the artists Giotto, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo.
  • Rome (Italy): Topic Page
    The cultural, financial, and transportation center of Italy; printing and publishing; chemicals; motion-picture production; tourism; in ancient times of the Roman Empire (q.v.) and later of the Papal States.
  • Vatican City: Topic Page
    Independent state within the city of Rome, Italy, and the residence of the pope, who is its absolute ruler.
  • Venice (Italy): Topic Page
    Venice is a tourist, commercial, and industrial center, located within a lagoon in the Gulf of Venice (an arm of the Adriatic Sea).

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More Europe

  • Iceland: Topic Page
    Island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, situated south of the Arctic Circle, between Greenland and Norway.
  • Italy: Topic Page
    Country in southern Europe, bounded north by Switzerland and Austria, east by Slovenia, Croatia, and the Adriatic Sea, south by the Ionian and Mediterranean seas, and west by the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian seas and France. It includes the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Sicily.
  • Latvia: Topic Page
    Country in northern Europe, bounded east by Russia, north by Estonia, north and northwest by the Baltic Sea, south by Lithuania, and southeast by Belarus.
  • Liechtenstein: Topic Page
    Independent principality in W central Europe, between Austria (E) and Switzerland (W); the capital is Vaduz. It was formed in 1719 through the merging of Vaduz and Schellenberg, but remained part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806. A member of the German Confederation from 1815, it gained independence in 1866. In 1921, Liechtenstein entered into a currency union with Switzerland and, in 1923, a customs union. Until 1990 Switzerland also handled its foreign policy. In 1990, the principality joined the UN. Liechtenstein has a constitutional and hereditary monarchy; the ruling family is the Austrian House of Liechtenstein. Women received the vote in 1984. Liechtenstein is the fourth-smallest country in the world, but among the richest (1998 GDP per capita, US$23,000). After 1945, it developed a manufacturing base. Most revenue derives from multinationals attracted by the low taxation rates. In 2000 it reformed its banking laws after criticism that it encouraged money-laundering. Tourism
  • Lithuania: Topic Page
    Country in northern Europe, bounded north by Latvia, east by Belarus, south by Poland and the Kaliningrad area of Russia, and west by the Baltic Sea.
  • Luxembourg: Topic Page
    The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is one of the smallest and oldest countries in Europe. The N belongs to an upland region that includes the Ardennes in Belgium and Luxembourg, and the Eiffel Highlands in Germany. This scenic region contains the country's highest point, a hill that reaches 565m [1,854ft] above sea level.
  • Malta: Topic Page
    Island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia, and north of Libya.
  • Monaco: Topic Page
    (mŏnʹəkō, mōnäʹkō, Fr. mônäkōʹ), officially Principality of Monaco, independent principality (2005 est. pop. 32,400), c.370 acres (150 hectares), on the Mediterranean Sea, an enclave within Alpes-Maritimes dept., SE France, near the Italian border. It consists of four adjoining quarters—La Condamine, the business district; Monte Carlo, the site of the famous casino; Monaco-Ville, the capital, atop a rocky promontory; and Fontvieille, an area of light industry built largely on reclaimed land.
  • Montenegro: Topic Page
    (mŏnˌtənēʹgrō), Serbo-Croatian Crna Gora, officially Republic of Montenegro, republic (2011 pop. (2011 pop. 185,937), 5,332 sq mi (13,810 sq km), W Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Croatia in the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northwest, Serbia in northeast, Kosovo and Albania in the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea in the southwest. Podgorica is the capital and largest city.
  • Netherlands: Topic Page
    (nĕʹərləndz), Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe. It is bounded by the North Sea on the north and west, by Belgium on the south, and by Germany on the east. It is popularly known as Holland. Amsterdam is the constitutional capital; The Hague is the administrative and governmental capital. The kingdom also includes three overseas territories, Aruba, Curaçao, and Saint Martin in the Caribbean Sea, as self-governing parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Caribbean islands of Bonaire, Saba, and Saint Eustatius are special municipalities in the Netherlands.
  • Norway: Topic Page
    Nor. Norge, officially Kingdom of Norway, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 4,593,000), 125,181 sq mi (324,219 sq km), N Europe, occupying the western part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Extending from the Skagerrak, which it borders in the south, c.1,100 mi (1,770 km) northeast to North Cape and Vardø on the Barents Sea in the extreme northeast, the country forms a narrow mountainous strip along the North Sea in the southwest and in the west the Atlantic Ocean, whose local waters are also called the Norwegian Sea. It has a long land frontier with Sweden in the east and in the northeast borders on Finland and Russia. Oslo is the capital and largest city. The nation's outlying possessions are Svalbard and Jan Mayen in the Arctic Ocean and Bouvet and Peter I islands in the S Atlantic; Norway also has claims in Antarctica.
  • Poland: Topic Page
    Pol. Polska, officially Republic of Poland, republic (2005 est. pop. 38,635,000), 120,725 sq mi (312,677 sq km), central Europe. It borders on Germany in the west, on the Baltic Sea and the Kaliningrad region of Russia in the north, on Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine in the east, and on the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the south. Warsaw is the capital and largest city.
  • Portugal: Topic Page
    Country in southwestern Europe, on the Atlantic Ocean, bounded north and east by Spain.
  • Romania: Topic Page
    Country in southeast Europe, bounded north and east by Ukraine, east by Moldova, southeast by the Black Sea, south by Bulgaria, southwest by Serbia, and northwest by Hungary.
  • San Marino: Topic Page
    Capital of the republic of San Marino; population (2006 est) 4,400. It is on the western slope of Monte Titano, 19 km/12 mi southwest of Rimini. Its economy relies on tourism. It is encircled by triple walls, with three fortresses, the 13th-century Rocca Guaita, Rocca Cesta, and Rocca Montale, and the 14th-century Church of San Francesco.
  • Serbia: Topic Page
    (sûrʹbēə), Serbian Srbijasŭrʹbēä, officially Republic of Serbia, republic (1995 est. pop. 10,394,000), 34,116 sq mi (88,361 sq km), W central Balkan Peninsula; formerly the chief constituent republic of Yugoslavia and of its short-lived successor, Serbia and Montenegro. It is bounded in the northwest by Croatia, in the north by Hungary, in the northeast by Romania, in the east by Bulgaria, in the south by Macedonia, in the southwest by Kosovo (a former Serbian province whose independence is not recognized by Serbia) and in the west by Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Belgrade is the capital.
  • Slovenia: Topic Page
    Country in south-central Europe, bounded north by Austria, east by Hungary, west by Italy, and south by Croatia.
  • Soviet Union: Topic Page
    Former federal republic, successor to the Russian Empire and the world's first communist state. The Soviet Union formed on December 30, 1922 and, when dissolved on December 31, 1991, was the largest country in the world.
  • Spain: Topic Page
    Officially Kingdom of Spain, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 40,341,000), 194,884 sq mi (504,750 sq km), including the Balearic and Canary islands, SW Europe. It consists of the Spanish mainland (190,190 sq mi/492,592 sq km), which occupies the major part of the Iberian Peninsula; of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea; and of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Sweden: Topic Page
    Country in northern Europe, bounded west by Norway, northeast by Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, southeast by the Baltic Sea, and southwest by the Kattegat strait.
  • Switzerland: Topic Page
    Landlocked country in Western Europe, bounded north by Germany, east by Austria and Liechtenstein, south by Italy, and west by France.
  • Turkey: Topic Page
    The Republic of Turkey lies in two continents. The European section (Thrace) lies W of a waterway between the Black and Mediterranean seas - the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) and a narrow strait called the Dardanelles.

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